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Unformatted text preview: Three main artists Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Charlie Parker Three Main artists Miles Davis John Coltrane Bill Evans Current Trends 1st 50 years 2nd 50 years What is the future of jazz? Very positive, players can do whatever they want Lots of vigorous activity Tremendous growth in higher education Stylistic multiplicity Musical Trends Preservationists Wynton and Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra Post AvantGarde Experimentalists John Zorn JazzLite "smooth jazz" Kenny G and others World Music Latin, Asian, African, other ethnic music. Crooner Vocalists Diana Krall, Michael Buble, et al. Big Band writers Free Jazz A term first applied to the avantgarde jazz of the 1960s. Main artists Ornette Coleman Cecil Taylor Albert Ayler Late Coltrane Free Jazz Features This term is applied to highly individualized styles. Absence of tonality and predetermined chord sequences Abandonment of the "chorus" structure and formal constructions Avoidance of traditional sounds, and replaced by "voicelike" sounds More on Free Jazz Most "freejazz" groups omitted piano. Why? Extensive manipulation of tone quality and pitch. Translates: They play outoftune. Extensive use of the altissimo register. This music used high energy and gestures as opposed to development of melodies. Popular Appeal Probably the least popular style in jazz history. Most pivotal recordings are no longer in print. Is this due to: low promotion? Chaotic and nerve wracking? Selfindulgent performances? "Taking up the slack" This term refers to one element of music becoming tightly controlled while others are completely free. Example pulse is very structured while traditional harmony and melody are abandoned. Ornette Coleman Born 1930 Played alto saxophone First recordings were from 1958 and 1960. Club work was met with hostility. "Harmolodic" a term he invented to describe simultaneous soundings of a single melodic line, in different tonalities, pitches, or keys. Free Jazz Listening Ornette Coleman Congeniality Free Jazz Bliggidy Blam abcd(x)1 4 A B A 3 C D C 4 A B A 8 8 8 8 8 8 2 8 4 Bliggidy formal structure John Zorn Graveyard Shift Intro Neotraditionalism vs. Postmodernism Neotraditional championed by Wynton Marsalis (preservationists) Postmodernism championed by John Zorn (freedom fighters) Born in New Orleans Played with Blakey Numerous awards, Grammys & Pulitzer Jazz at Lincoln Center Wynton Marsalis NewTraditionalism Wynton turned the acoustic jazz tradition around, saved the industry. He is the artistic director of Jazz at Lincoln Center He is closely tied to the techniques and repertoire of Duke Ellington. Controversial, proclaiming "what is" and "what isn't" Jazz. Ponder these questions Does jazz have to swing to be jazz? Does jazz need to have inflections from the blues? Should jazz exclude certain instruments? Must the music sound connected to the "history of jazz" at the expense of its evolution? Post Modernism Diametrically opposed to newtraditionalists Eclectic borrowing music from hard bop, classical, Klezmer dances, R&B, and nature sounds. Pieces are organized around "blocks of sounds" Zorn's rock band Naked City Is jazz defined by the product or the process? Compare Marsalis and Zorn Wynton "sounds like" Duke Ellington, Zorn's doesn't. Fits better with product. Zorn's music does the same thing Duke's did, "beyond category", it is music that "sounds unlike" anything that came before it. Fits better with process. Consider the collage from first class What is your experience as you listen compared to the first day? ...
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- Spring '08