chapter one book summary

chapter one book summary - Chapter 1: Introduction and...

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Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods Chapter Summary I. INTRODUCING PSYCHOLOGY A. What is Psychology? - The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Psychology values empirical evidence - information acquired by direct observation and measurement using systematic scientific methods. Studying psychology offers practical solutions to everyday problems and develops an appreciation for scientific methods of research, as opposed to pseudopsychologies (“false psychologies”) that pretend to discover psychological information through nonscientific methods. B. Psychology’s Goals - The four goals of psychology are: (1) Description - to describe particular behaviors by careful scientific observation, (2) Explanation – to explain behaviors by conducting experiments to determine their causes, (3) Prediction – to predict when a behavior being studied will occur in the future, and (4) Change – to change inappropriate behavior or circumstance psychologists investigate behavior with basic research or applied research. Applying Psychology to Work: Careers in the Field - Psychologists can specialize in several areas, including clinical and counseling psychology, biopsychology/neuroscience, experimental, cognitive, developmental, industrial/organizational, industrial/organizational, educational psychology, school psychology. A description of the different areas/specialties of psychology is shown in Table 1.1.The number of psychologists working in the different fields is highlighted in Figure 1.1. II. ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY A. Early Psychological Science: A Brief History - Historically psychologists have taken various approaches regarding the study of behavior. They eventually emerged to form various schools of psychology with distinct approaches to the study of behavior. The following nine major schools are discussed: (1) structuralism, (2) functionalism, (3) psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, (4) behavioral, (5) humanistic, (6) cognitive, (7) neuroscience/biopsychology, (8) evolutionary, and (9) sociocultural. The contributions of women and minorities are highlighted. 1. Structuralism - Titchener brought Wundt's ideas to America and coined the term structuralism, which is now used to refer to the school of thought that focused on the investigation of thought processes and the structure of the mind. 2. Functionalism - Feeling the need for practical applications of psychology, some psychologists turned to functionalism. Functionalism focused on the function of mental processes in adapting the individual to the environment . Darwin’s theory of evolution had an impact on this school and William James was the leading force in the functionalist
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chapter one book summary - Chapter 1: Introduction and...

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