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pysch-TEST 2 - Missing notes from Fri Feb 15 Psych Mon...

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Missing notes from Fri. Feb 15 Psych Mon 12-18-06 Every culture, including our own, attaches meaning to dreams. Dreams: vivid visual and auditory experiences that occur primarily during REM periods of sleep Why do we dream?? 1. Dreams as unconscious wishes Freud- people permit themselves to express primitive desires that are relatively free of moral controls. Even in a dream, such hostile feelings may be censored and transformed into a symbolic form. Accounts for illogical nature of dreams 2. Dreams as information processing Reprocess information gathered during day-strengthening memory of information crucial to survival. Research-both humans and nonhumans spend more time in REM sleep after learning difficult material. 3. Dreams and neural activity Alan Hobson-activation-synthesis theory-dreams are result of neurons misfiring. Meaningless. 4. Dreams and waking life Extension of conscious concerns of daily life in altered (but not disguised) form. Drug-Altered Consciousness In nearly every known culture throughout history, people have sought ways to alter waking consciousness Psychoactive drugs-chemical substances that change moods, perceptions, mental functioning, or behavior Of all psychoactive substances, alcohol has longest history of widespread use. Middle ages alcohol known as Aqua vitae-water of life Is today’s drug problem different from the drug use in other societies and times? 1. Motives for using psychoactive drugs have changed. 2. Drug themselves have changed 3. Synthetic drugs appear regularly, with unpredictable consequences. Depressants: Alcohol, barbiturates, and Opiates
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1. Depressants-slow down activity in central nervous system-feeling of calmness/drowsiness a. Alcohol-intoxicating ingredient in whiskey, beer, wine, and other fermented or distilled liquors. Effects of alcohol Many Americans see nothing wrong with moderate social drinking but disapprove of drunkenness. Alcohol is America’s number one drug problem. b. Barbiturates-potentially deadly depressants 1 st used for sedative/anticonvulsant properties Now used only to treat such conditions as epilepsy and arthritis. 1950’s-reseatchers began to realize that barbiturates were highly addictive and potentially lethal. c. Opiates-psychoactive substances derived from, or resembling, seedpod of opium poppy. Changes in way opium and its derivative, morphine, were used opened the door to abuse. Heroin-introduced in 1898 as a cure for morphine addiction-created an even stronger dependency Effects of use Serious health conditions Amphetamines 2. Amphetamines-stimulant drugs that initially produce “rushes” of euphoria often followed by sudden “crashes” Effects Formication-feeling of bugs crawling on skin ,amphetamine psychosis Methamphetamines-speed, fire, crank, ice, or crystal Ecstacy (MDMA) acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen.
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