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psychology test one

psychology test one - Psychology 2001 January 14th 2008...

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Psychology 2001 January 14 th , 2008 Chapter One- Intro and Research Methods Psychology and Science- Psychology- human mind and behavior  Assumptions of science  1. Order- things happen for a reason 2. Determinism- every event has a physical potentially measurable cause  Two problems-  1. Free will  2. Something was caused by nothing         3. Skepticism-doubts will claim not supported by solid research evidence. 4. Accuracy- evaluate info as carefully as possible  5. Objectively- free of bias  6. Open mind ness- willingness to change Goals of Scientific Research-  1. Description- citing of observable characteristics a. Systematic- describes only relevant items b. Precise- concert descriptions- measurement- use of numbers c. Operational definitions- definitions on terms of the procedures used to measure or  produce.  2. Prediction-  a. Hypothesis- testable prediction about relationship between two or more factors. Ex. If A  happens, the B will happen. b. Theory- statements that summarize/explain research findings and from which hypothesis  are derived.  c. Predictions- about human behaviors more accurate in regard to people in general then to  a specific person.  3. Control a. Experimental control- in research, controlling as many factors as possible. b. Everyday control- application of research findings to control as possible.  4. Explanation- causes why thins happen Scientific Method-  Series of steps to answer questions. 
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1. Rationale/ Review relevant literature. a. Identify area  b. Review research  c. Operational definitions 1. Operational definitions  2. Avoid needless replication  3. Put research into broader context  4. Other theories   2. Develop hypothesis  3. Design study/ collect data  4. Analyze data a. Descriptive static’s- summarizes data. Mean, variability  b. Internal static- compare groups  c. Discuss implications of research findings 5. Publish/ Replicate a. Publish findings  b. Replicate study  1. Replicate exact study  2. Replicate study with systematic variation of relevant variables  6. Build Theory  Types of Research-  1. Descriptive research- systematic observation- no causation or predication all you get is  description a. Naturalistic observation- doesn’t know they are being observed. Changes reaction. b. Ethnographic observation- live in culture. Spend a lot of time.  c. Archival research- over a length of time  d. Case studies- rare, one person at a time  2. Correlation research- enables prediction.  We still can’t talk about the cause.  Cannot  introduce variable for ethics/ logistical reasons a. Positive correlation coefficient means that the change is the same direction.
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