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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 1 Chapter 1 - Intro and Research Methods PSYCHOLOGY - human mind and behavior (thoughts, motivations, perceptions, sensations, behavior, human interaction) Assumptions of science- 1. ORDER in the universe, things happen for a reason, lawful and not haphazard relationships 2. DETERMINISM - every event has a physical, potentially measurable cause. Causes two problems. a. FREE WILL b. 3. SKEPTICISM – doubts all claims not supported by solid research evidence. Especially important in psychology- many of our findings are tentative and subject to change with time. We are surrounded and affected by culture. 4. ACCURACY – evaluate info as carefully as possible 5. OBJECTIVITY -- science has the duty to be free of bias 6. OPEN MINDEDNESS - willingness to change if they are given suitable data Goals of scientific research- 1. DESCRIPTION – citing of observable characteristics a. SYSTEMATIC – describe only relevant items. Example, if I’m writing about social interaction in a classroom setting, I do not need to tell you what the teacher is wearing. b. PRECISE – concrete descriptions – measurement – use of numbers. c.OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS – definitions in terms of the procedures used to measure or produce. Example – drunk is having a BAC of .08 or above. 2. PREDICTION – Based on what I’ve seen in the past, what will happen next? a. HYPOTHESIS – testable prediction about relationship between two or more factors b. THEORY – statements that summarize / explain research findings and from which hypotheses are derived. An overview of what we know so far about a topic. c.PREDICTIONS about human behavior are more accurate in regard to people in general than to a specific person (better applied to groups than individuals) This means on average, people in situation A respond with reaction B, but I cannot say precisely what one of you will do. 3. CONTROL – manipulating factors that affect thought / behavior. a. EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL – in research, controlling as many factors as possible. Example, if I’m testing mood, I want to test them all on the same day of the week. It’s 6:30 on Monday- how you feeling? This could differ from 6:30 on Friday. The same experiment proctor should be used – you don’t like everyone around you equally. b. EVERYDAY CONTROL – application of research findings to control of behavior. This is applying research findings to controlled behavior in everyday life....
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYCH 2000 taught by Professor Domangue during the Spring '08 term at LSU.
- Spring '08