PSYCH 7 CHAPTER 4 THE EMERGENCE OF THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE\u2014COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND EARLY C - PSYC 7 CHAPTER 4 THE EMERGENCE OF THOUGHT AND

PSYCH 7 CHAPTER 4 THE EMERGENCE OF THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE—COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND EARLY C

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PSYC 7 CHAPTER 4: THE EMERGENCE OF THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE—COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD Piagets’ Account—Basic Principles o Children are active scientists or explorers of their world o Children make sense of the world through schemes – mental categories of related events, objects, and knowledge Children adapt by refining their schemes and adding new ones Schemes change from physical to functional, conceptual, and abstract as the child develops Physical scheme: early infants, “things I can grasp” vs. “things I can suck” Functional scheme: preschoolers, “things I use to eat” (fork, spoon, etc.) Assimilation and Accommodation o Assimilation: fitting new experiences into existing schemes Required to benefit from experience o Accommodation: modifying schemes as a result of new experiences Allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences o Example: Butterflies vs. Moths Equilibration o Equilibrium: balance between assimilation and accommodation o Disequilibrium: experience of conflict between new information and existing concepts o Equilibration: inadequate schemes are reorganized or replaced with more advanced and mature schemes Occurs three times during development, resulting in four qualitatively different stages of cognitive development o Equilibration is a more drastic change – a shift in thinking entirely instead of just more accommodation. Periods of Cognitive Development o Sensorimotor period (0-2 years) Infancy o Preoperational period (2-7 years) Preschool and early elementary school o Concrete operational period (7-11 years) Middle and late elementary school o Formal operational period (11 years & up) Adolescence and adulthood Sensorimotor period/thinking (0-2 years) o Three important changes in thinking during this period: Adapting/Exploring, Understanding Objects, Using Symbols o Adapting & Exploring the Environment 1-4 months: reflexes are modified by experience (ex: sucking finger on purpose) 8 months: Deliberate, means-ends behavior 12 months: Active experimenters (which toy makes the best noise?) o Understanding Objects Object permanence: knowing an object still exists even if not in view A not B error: infants between about 8-10 months will look for an object where it used to be
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Not fully understood until 18 months o Using Symbols By 18 months babies use many words and gestures: “symbols” of something else Anticipate consequences of actions, instead of needing to experience them 18 to 24 months Example: they know that turning over their cup will spill the juice, instead of just doing it and discovering that it spills Preoperational period/thinking (2-7 years) o Egocentrism Difficulty seeing world from others’ perspectives Piaget & Inhelder’s mountain experiment o Animism Crediting inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties The car is “hurt” after an accident o Centration
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  • Fall '14
  • Blumenthal,EmilyJeanne
  • Theory of cognitive development

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