PSYC 7 CHAPTER 9: MOVING INTO THE ADULT SOCIAL WORKD—SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE Identity and Self-Esteem The Search for Identity o Erikson: identity achievement vs. identity (role) confusion Balancing between selecting a single self vs. trying out many possible selves o Via formal operational thought, fantasize about various roles and do “trial runs” Strong focus on career roles Also focus on talents, romance, friendships, religion, politics, gender orientation, & roles o Many teenagers go through various phases when searching for identity Not sequential like other stage theories Most in a state of diffusion or foreclosure (see table next slide) Older teens tend to alternate between moratorium and achievement o These phases don’t only apply to career identities, but also to religion, politics, etc. Marcia’s Four Identity Statuses Characteristics of Adolescents’ Thinking o Adolescent egocentrism: recognize other’s feelings, but only care about their own o Imaginary audience: think that peers are constantly watching and judging them Happens with adults too: Spotlight effect 1
o Personal Fable: teenagers’ tendency to believe no one has ever felt or experienced what they have o Illusion of invulnerability: misfortune only happens to others Can explain risky choices made by teens o All of these characteristics become less common as teens progress towards identity Ethnic Identity o About 1/3 of adolescent and young adults belong to an ethnic minority; they typically develop an ethnic identity o Three phases to achieving this identity Ethnic roots are unimportant to them Exploring their ethnic heritage’s personal impact and learning cultural traditions Development of a distinct ethnic self-identity o Second phase – may learn history of group and things like traditional cooking techniques Benefits: higher self-esteem, better family interaction, less response to discrimination o Generally speaking, having an ethnic identity is beneficial to adolescents o Ethnic identity: feel a part of their ethnic group and learn the special customs and traditions of their group’s culture and heritage Self-Esteem in Adolescence o Comparisons with peers entering middle school often gradually decreases self- esteem relative to elementary school o As children adjust to this new “pecking order,” their self-esteem increases and then stabilizes during adolescence o Adolescents particularly differentiate their social self-esteem (e.g., positive about parent, but negative about romantic relationships) o Self-worth also varies by ethnicity o Differentiation: 9 year old: high SE in physical, academic, and social domains 15 year old: high SE in academic, middle in social, low in physical (for example) Even further differentiation in adolescence: high SE in math, low in English (for example) Ethnicity: lower for African Americans and Hispanic Americans during elementary school, but reversed for high school.
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- Fall '14
- Ethnic group, Human sexual behavior, romantic relationships