The Second World War: Lecture 2: From Versailles to the Slump 1. The Search for Stability —Europe in 1919: aftermath of collapse of Romanov, Habsburg, Hohenzollern and Ottoman Empires; Bolsheviks consolidating control in Russia; Western fear of spread of Red revolution (Sparticists in Berlin; Soviet regimes in Bavaria, Hungary). —Aims of Paris Peace: cordon sanitaire against Soviet Russia; keeping Germany weak; recognition of “right to self-determination” (Woodrow Wilson). —Versailles Treaty: Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine; demilitarisation of Rhineland; Saar and Danzig under League of Nations; Polish Corridor dividing Germany from East Prussia; part of Schleswig to Denmark; part of Upper Silesia to Poland; Memel to Lithuania; German army limited to 100,000; no tanks/large warships/submarines/airforce; reparations (132 billion marks); “war guilt” clause. —Other treaties: settled dismemberment of Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. —Grounds for optimism:
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