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Unformatted text preview: Aristotle In observing the world, Aristotle saw four "causes" that are responsible for making an object what it is: the material, formal, efficient, and final. material cause: that out of which a thing is made formal cause: that into which a thing is made efficient cause: that by which a thing is made final cause: that for which a thing is made. Aristotle believed the last of these to be most important, for it determined the other three....
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- Spring '08