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Unformatted text preview: Hope it works today Creative Design Generating good concepts for solving the design problem. Design effort is rewarded! Conceptual Complexity spend time here Implementation Complexity optimize this. "There is always a better way!" Approaching a Design Problem A structured approach, informed by past research on creative design, can yield results more quickly than waiting for inspiration. Brilliant designers think along the structured lines naturally. 1 Design Steps Problem definition "Homework" Solution 1. Gathering Information 2. Classifying/ordering the information 3. Summarize information in a Problem Definition Statement 4. Conceptual Design 5. Embodiment Design 6. Final Design Conceptual Design A conceptual design is a design ... which in principle can be implemented using known methods, but the details are not yet knows. Don't worry about the details until all feasible concepts have been generated. The Problem! Client wants a disposable corkscrew to include with bottles of wine. Ashby, M.F., Materials Selection in Mechanical Design 2nd Ed, ButterworthHeinemann, London, 1999. 2 First step? Functions- remove cork Objectives - minimum cost, reliable as possible, minimum strength needed, recyclable Constraints - must be operable with a force of x, safely Gathering Information Classifying/ordering the information Summarize information in a Problem Definition Statement THEN Conceptual Design Next Steps - gather information (do not reinvent the wheel) : shelf check : web research : patent research - Function/ means breakdown: CREATIVE TECHNIQUE Ashby, M.F., Materials Selection in Mechanical Design 2nd Ed, ButterworthHeinemann, London, 1999. 3 Functions/Means Tree or Morph Chart generate a force - transmit a force - apply force to cork direct pull levered pull geared push direct push levered push shaft screw shear blades gas injection fluid pressure Ashby, M.F., Materials Selection in Mechanical Design 2nd Ed, ButterworthHeinemann, London, 1999. Commercial Solutions Ashby, M.F., Materials Selection in Mechanical Design 2nd Ed, ButterworthHeinemann, London, 1999. Another Example: Vacuum Cleaner Design Vacuum cleaner design was basically unchanged since the original invention in 1901. Vacuums work well but the bags clog. By stepping backwards using a function-means approach, James Dyson revolutionized the industry. Separate Dirt from Air Filter Bag Settling Cyclone Electrostatic 4 A new idea In 1978, James Dyson noticed how the air filter in the Ballbarrow spray-finishing room was constantly clogging with powder particles (just like a vacuum cleaner bag clogs with dust). So he designed and built an industrial cyclone tower, which removed the powder particles by exerting centrifugal forces greater than 100,000 times those of gravity. Could the same principle work in a vacuum cleaner? James Dyson set to work. 5 years and 5,127 prototypes later, the world's first bagless vacuum cleaner from Dyson arrived. Text taken from Dyson Dual CycloneTM The Dual CycloneTM system is the first breakthrough in technology since the invention of the vacuum cleaner in 1901. The traditional bag has been replaced by two cyclone chambers which cannot clog with dust. After the Dyson's outer cyclone has spun out the larger dust and dirt particles, the inner cyclone accelerates the air still further to remove the minute health-threatening particles. Text taken from , Invention vs. Design Invention process of solving the problem in a new way. solution will not be obvious to people of ordinary skill in the art. Design can be routine solution is consistent with previous solutions to similar problems. We should all aspire to clever design, whether or not we are inventing. 5 "Routine" but Good Design Michael Stewart Design Good Design = Structured Approach 1. Gathering Information 2. Classifying/ordering the information 3. Summarize information in a Problem Definition Statement 4. Conceptual Design 5. Embodiment Design 6. Final Design 1. Gathering Info - client statement - preliminary research - client interview - extensive research on the state of the art :web :store :patents : 6 Prior Art Do not only look in the "problem area" - where will i find prior art? e.g. You are charged with designing the electronics (including safety circuits) for hot tub control. - bench mark existing hot tubs - look at other Temperately control systems - pressure control systems . Prior art can be in a completely unrelated field!! 2. Classify the Information Properly classify the information gathered from the client statement, interviews, surveys, etc. into (surprise!) - Functions - Objectives - Constraints . 7 Functions Expand list of functions to find all the intended (useful) and unintended (or harmful) functions. - enumeration - decomposition: functional or physical - blackbox\transparentbox inputs ---- BOX ---- outputs Expanding Functions We need to make sure that we really understand the functions and unintended side effects of the design. Enumeration Enumeration; make a complete list - every interaction between the design and the outside world - what happens if the object disappears? Adapted from Dym & Little, Eng. Design 2nd ed. Ranking Objectives - indented tree - pair wise comparison - overriding objective of a company is usually profit. E.g. - Mountain bikes Objectives - light and cheap If selling price is a function of material used f(m) 8 Constraints Important to have a complete list - dont rely on the client statement or interview Enumerate all possible constraints - cost - environment - safety - reliability - recyclable - service temperature - moisture Creative Problem Solving Characteristics of the Optimum Solution Obviously performs F, meets C, maximizes O Generally it is: Simple - implementation - reliability Feasible IDEAL DESIGN - if it satisfies all the criteria Comprehensive . TRIZ: Definition of Ideality Technological systems tend to evolve in the direction of increasing ideality. Useful Functions Harmful Functions - cost Example: The first oil tanker had a load-to-weight ratio of 50/50% (oil cargo accounted for half the weight of the loaded tanker). Today's super-tankers have a ratio of 98/2%. 9 Steps to Creativity - imagination - persistant - keep searching for improvements - suspend judgement - set problem boundaries Individual effort used for the creative part. Group effort - refine Creative Techniques Reversal - Improving Products and Services SCAMPER - Generating new products and services Attribute Listing, Morphological & Matrix Analysis - Creating new products, services & strategies Brainstorming - Generating many radical ideas Reframing Matrix - Looking with different perspectives Concept Fan - Widening the search for solutions Random Input - Making creative leaps Provocation - Carrying out thought experiments DO IT - A simple process for creativity Simplex - A powerful problem-solving process Brainstorming Brainstorming is a process that works best with a group of people when you follow the following four rules. to brainstorm we need a well defined problem - scribe - writes down all ideas - group - optimum size - encourage all ideas without judgement 10 Moving a barge - pull/push - apply horizontal, winch, bulldoze - lift - crane, helicopter, jack, air pressure - avoid sinking in ground Unstructured brainstorming is not always enough! Q: How can we do better? S c a m p e r substitute combine adapt modify put to use eliminate rearnge, reverse Dieter, pg. 159 Synectics Creative problem solving by analogy - direct analogy : biomedics - how is it done in nature - personal analogy - how would a human do this - symbolic analogy or fantasy analogy - what if part of the problem was magically solved? Dieter: 5.3.3 11 Robot Muscles: Find a way to move a robot joint Biomimedic - how do the muscles work Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ from the Russian) Triz was based on an analysis of the patent literature by Genrich Alshuller. Inventions fell within a limited number of categories. Level 1 - Routine design problems solved by methods well known within the specialty. Level 2 - Minor improvements to an existing system using methods known within the industry. Level 3 - Fundamental improvement to an existing system using methods known outside the industry. Level 4 - A new generation of a system that entails a new principle for performing the system's primary functions. Level 5 - A rare scientific discovery or pioneering invention of an essentially a new system. TRIZ Levels 3 and 4 Straightforward engineering is not good enough These problem contain technical contradictions systems s E.g. In WB 242, dividers provide privacy for group work, but an obstacle to addressing the whole class. How high should they be? Here the problem was solved by compromise ~ 50 inches. - triz aims to avoid compromise - instead find creative solution - there are limited number of inventive principles needed to solve contradictions. 12 Decomposition Break problem into smaller parts Functional Decomposition Fold Paper Feed Score Double Crease Stack Physical Decomposition Folding Machine Motor Belt Controls Decomposition Break problem into smaller parts Functional Decomposition Physical Decomposition Morphological Charts Arranges functions and sub-functions in logical order. For each sub-function, the means to accomplish are listed. [feed] [crimp] -subtask -subtask fold paper [double] 13 Creativity Software Goldfire Innovator from Invention Machine Corp. Innovation Workbench from Ideation Intl. Creativity Conclusions Fairly substantial body of thinking about enhancing creativity exists. Formal methods more likely to be used in large corporations. Creativity can be practiced and improved by using the formal techniques. Next we need to evaluate our choices. 14 ...
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