Lecture3 - Getting Started: Gathering Background...

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Unformatted text preview: Getting Started: Gathering Background Information and Preparing a Design Spec. Reading Assignment: ESP Text Chapter 4 Taken from ESP Text, G.E.Dieter 1 First objective is to produce a Design Specification or Problem Definition Statement - PDS "Control and reference" document for the job. (Dieter, pg.74) Contract between client and engineer /outlines the functions, objectives and constraints for the artifact /gives a timeline and details the deliveratives /its the basis for the subsequent engineering actions and hence in engineering terms Gathering Information to prepare PDS: Source #1 - Client Statement Often brief and/or overly prescriptive Missing information May contain Errors Bias, assumptions Implied solutions You need to dig down to find out what the clients most fundamental needs are. E.g. The client asks for a band saw, but they actually want ...? to make a cut There are many other ways to make a cut. Eg- punch laser, water jet etc. 2 Gathering Information to prepare PDS: Source #2 - Client Interview Before the Interview: /you need to ask the right questions to find out what the client really wants. /you need to know as much as possible. Doing Background Research /print literature /web /benchmarking/reverse engineering /direct approach Interviews with experts Interviews with potential users and focus groups 3 Reinventing the wheel In research there is a saying: "Ten hours in the lab will save half an hour in the library" After your interview, you will have to define the problem for the PDS, and you will start to think about potential solutions. YOU must do extensive research so that you start at the "state of the art". You are allowed to "cheat" in this course! Adapted from Dieter /technical dictionaries /encyclopedias /handbooks /textbooks review articles /professional journal articles /technical journal articles /patents /manufacturers information /brochures /catalogs Hierarchy of Information Increasing detail. Look for information in this order 4 Dictionaries and Encyclopedias To introduce you to technical terms Good examples given in your text. e.g. Parker, S.P. (ed.) "McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering", McGraw-Hill, NY, 1997. Handbooks Each engineering discipline has its own handbooks, which are referances with useful background information Again, your text has a good list. E.g. Perry, R.H., (ed), "Perry's Chemical Engineers Handbook," 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, NY, 1997. Available online to U of T students. 5 Textbooks you are familiar with these /start with thin and general purpose books Accessing the Journals /journal articles are highly specialized research and design reports. they are unlikely to be needed for general engineering design work /journal articles are accessed through indexing services such as the engineering index and chemical abstracts. /web of science is a good general deign index /scopus and scholar portals are available through library website. 6 Patents A patent allows the inventor for making or using the functional item that is described / patent database is a valuable source of information / searching is done by a combination of standard boolean search strings and a special classification system analogous to the library congress system for classifying books. Patent Searching USPTO is the US Patent and Trademark Office, and is generally the first access point for Patent Searches http://www.uspto.gov/ The new Google patent server is actually very powerful and easy to use. http://www.google.com/patents The European Patent Server provides access to European and other patents. http://ep.espacenet.com 7 Finding companies /thomas register of American manufacturers is available on the web. www.thomasregister.com globalapec.com /google search also works but produces highly uneven results /often is better www.mcmaster.com Engineering Codes Codes are written to save time and ensure safety. They are based on previous engineering and incorporate lessons learned from previous engineering failures. /must be considered before embarking on conceptual design. Examples Canadian Standards Association (www.csa.ca) American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (www.asme.org) American National Standards Institute (www.ansi.org) American Society of Testing Materials Standards (www.astm.org) American Institute of Steel Construction Codes and Manuals (www.aisc.org) Pressure Vessel Manufacturer's Association (www.pvma.org) Underwriters Laboratories (www.ul.com) Ask you client. Are you aware of any codes or standards that govern the design? 8 Direct Research (requires client permission) /interviews /all stakeholders /focus groups /small, representative groups of users. /surveys /sent to a wide range of users /to form itself is called a survey instrument /existing feedback /client may have existing research to share with you /during interview ask if u can do interview, speak to stakeholders, see existing feedback The internet Advantages: /instant access /huge amounts of information Disadvantages: /uneven quality /huge amounts of information /Dieter has a good list of some good engineering urls. 9 The internet Advanced Google or other type of search is recommended. A list of 100,000 websites is quite useless. Limit by date, location, file type, etc. See Google's advanced search tips for information on using boolean operators (Google uses + and signs as well as some standard operators) Internet Quality Sites such as wikipedia can be edited by anyone /surprisingly, a recent study in nature, arguably the most prestigious science journal, found that wikipedia was not significantly worse than Britannia in terms of factual errors in scientific articles, although other problems were highlighted. You are responsible for downloading and reading the 2page article in Nature, Dec. 2005. http://www.nature.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/nature/ journal/v438/n7070/pdf/438900a.pdf 10 For example: Start researching the Wankel Rotary Engine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wankel_engine http://auto.howstuffworks.com/rotary-engine.htm These are very general introductions to the technology, but a search of the Scholars Portal through the U of T library site turns up papers like this one. Effect of Chamber Width on Flame Characteristics in Small Combustion Chambers Tsuji, Yoshifumi; Sprague, Bennett; Walther, David C; Pisano, Albert P; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos, 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; Reno, NV; USA; 10-13 Ja. 2005. 9 pp. 2005 Summary /put a great deal of effort into understanding the problem /dont rely entirely on client information 11 Aside: Copyright "A copyright is an exclusive legal right to publish a tangible expression of literary or artistic work", Dieter, pg. 122. Product design challenge 12 ...
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