Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Major Themes on Anatomy and...

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Chapter 1: Major Themes on Anatomy and Physiology I. The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – The study of Form. Anatomy is the study of structure, often done by dissection of cadavers. Different levels of anatomy include gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and ultra-structure: comparative anatomy examines more than one species. Physiology- The study of function. Physiology is the study of function and is primarily an experimental science. Comparative physiology employs other species to enable us to learn more about human physiology. II. The Origins of Biomedical Science The beginnings of medicine. Hippocrates ( c460 – c 375 BC) urged physicians to seek the natural causes of diseases.
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Aristotle ( 384-322 BC) made significant observations about functioning of the human body and argued that complex structures are built from a smaller variety of simple components. Claudius Galen ( 129 – 199) was a physician to the Roman gladiators and a careful observer of human anatomy. He viewed science as a way of knowing, a process to be perfected with time. During the Middle Ages, theology dominated human thought. Medicine was taught using Aristotle’s and Galen’s writings rather than by conducting new research. III. The Birth of Modern Medicine. The Muslin world and Avicenna developed medicine further, beyond what was known by the western world. Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius (1514 – 1564) broke from the tradition of watching cadaver dissections from a cathedra to doing the dissections himself. He pointed out errors in Galen’s book and published the first comprehensive atlas of anatomy.
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William Harvey was the pioneer in modern physiology. He measured cardiac output and concluded that blood was recycled within the body. Antony van Leeuywenhoek (1632 -1703) invented the first microscope and watched microscopic organisms in lake water. He observed numerous types of human tissues and opened the door to an understanding of human structure and the possible causes of disease.
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