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Terms:Ibn Battuta: A Muslim explorer renowned for his extensive travels accounts of what he saw abroad. Over a period of thirty years Ibn Battuta visited almost the entire Muslim world, in addition to many areas that were Non-Muslim. Ibn Battuta epitomized the region’s (Dar Al-Islam) social and cultural cohesion that facilitated the movement of goods, ideas, technology, etc. More accurately, he epitomized the fluid and easy movement found in these lands. Everywhere he went Muslim communities welcomed him, facilitating his extraordinary journey. Mali: An Islamic empire found in Western Africa, Mali was a principle source of gold to the European, and generally world, Economy. The Malian empire established the city of Timbuktu that was a global cultural powerhouse for the learning of sciences, Islam, astrology. A demonstration of its wealth is when Mensa Musa made the pilgrimage to Mecca and took with him 60,000 porters and other followers, and camels carrying huge amounts of gold, and actually crashed the price of gold in Cairo. Zheng He: Zheng He, a eunuch Muslim admiral in the Chinese emperors fleet. Eunuchs cannot have a family of their own, meaning that they cannot produce an heir, leading to the nullification of the incentive to betraying the ruler. Zheng led a series of expeditions that sailed across much of the Eurasian world. The purpose of these expeditions was to establish diplomatic relations with different peoples. They also established Chinese dominance; showed China’s neighbors that it is the most powerful state around. Must note the sheer scale of these expeditions. First expedition was made up of 300 ships, or 27,000 sailors, 10 times larger than any European fleet at the time. Tells us that China had the technological means to project their power. Dar al-Islam: Huge region that expands from Southern Spain, all across North Africa –including some parts of the sub-Sahara-, all the Middle East, the Balkans up until the Gates of Vienna, India, parts of central Asia until the Borders of China. Dar Al-Islam was not a unified state governed by single leader; it was broken up and ruled by different individuals. But Islam as a faith provided extraordinary ideological, social, and cultural unity to these different peoples. Made up of the Ottoman, Safavid,Mughal, and Malian Empires. Ferdinand Magellan: A Portuguese explorer who organized and led –until his death- the world’s first successful circumnavigation of the globe. He did not live to completethe journey he captained due to his premature death in a battle in the Philippines. Was commissioned by the Spanish King Charles V to find a Western route to the Spice Islands.
Peace of Westphalia: A series of Peace Treaties signed in the year 1648 that ended the Thirty Years’ War and the Eighty Years’ War. The principles developed at Westphalia, especially those relating to respecting the boundaries of sovereign states and non-interference in their domestic affairs, became central to the world order that developed over the following centuries.