Indus ValleyThe Harappan culture existed along the Indus River in what is present day Pakistan. It was named after the city of Harappa. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization. This Indus Valley “civilization” flourished around 4000-1000 B.C.
Old World Civilizations
ChronologyAncient Indus ChronologyPeriodPhaseYrs. (B.C.E.)5Late Harappan (Cemetery H)?1700-13004Harappan/Late Harappan Transitional1900-?17003CHarappan Phasec. 2200-19003BHarappan Phasec. 2450-22003AHarappan Phasec.2600-24502Early Harappan/Kot Diji Phasec. 2800-26001A/BEarly Harappan/Ravi Phasec. 3300-2800
Early Harappan-Ravi Phase3300-2800 BCThis distinctive, regional culture which emerged is called Early or Pre-Harappan. Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lazuli and other materials for bead-making. Domesticated crops included peas, sesame seeds, dates and cotton. Domestic animals also used, such as the water buffalo.Mud brick for building.
Earliest Phase-Ravi (3300-2800 B.C.)
Middle Harappan-Integration Era2600-1900 BCBy 2500 BCE, communities had been turned into urban centers (integration).Six such urban centers have been discovered, including: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and Dicki in Pakistan, along with Gonorreala, Dokalingam and Mangalore in India. In total, over 1052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Florence River and its tributaries.Irrigation used to increase crop production and mud brick structures.
Indus Valley-Integration Era
Late Harappan-Cemetery H 1700-1300 BCCremation of human remains. The bones were stored in painted pottery burial urns. This is completely different to the Indus civilization where bodies were buried in wooden coffins. Reddish pottery, painted in black with antelopes, peacocks etc., sun or star motifs, with different surface treatments to the earlier period. Expansion of settlements into the east. Rice became a main crop. Apparent breakdown of the widespread trade of the Indus civilization, with materials such as marine shells no longer used. Continued use of mud brick for building.
Indus Valley-Cemetery H (1700-1300 BC)
Natural ResourcesThe Indus Valley contained numerous natural resources that were an important part of Harappan civilization.Resources included:Fresh water and timber.Materials such as gold, silver, semi-precious stones.Marine resources.
Himalayan MountainsNanga Parbat and numerous other mountains of the Himalaya, Karakorum and Hindu Kush provide a continuous source of water for the Indus and its tributaries. These mountain ranges also provided important timber, animal products, and minerals, gold, silver, tin and semiprecious stones that were traded throughout the Indus Valley.
ValleysCedar in Chitral valley is still used to make houses and coffins, following a tradition that dates back to the
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