IR midterm study

IR midterm study - SHORT ID'S: Balancing: N Korea, China,...

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SHORT ID’S: Balancing: N Korea, China, Iran, Venezuela, and Russ are “soft balancing” against the US Cold war ended possibly b/c of shift in balance of power ALLIANCES States sometimes balance against the strongest power In Cold War, the US encircled the SU w/milit. And pol alliances to prevent Soviet territorial expansion Can be internal – building up military and stuff, or external – joining with others Mearsheimer believes that balancing is less efficient due to buckpassing and other strategies of free-riding . Bandwagoning: Smaller states “jump the bandwagon” of the most powerful state After WWII, most states joined the US bloc instead of balanced against the great power. Bandwagoning occurs when weaker states decide that the cost of opposing a stronger power exceeds the benefits to be gained from supporting it. The stronger power may offer incentives, such as the possibility of territorial gain or trade agreements for the weaker states, to induce weaker states to join with it. Realism predicts that states will bandwagon rarely, only when there is no possibility of building a balancing coalition or their geography makes balancing difficult (i.e. surrounded by enemies). Bandwagoning is considered to be dangerous because it allows a rival state to gain power. A belief that bandwagoning happens more frequently is implied by the theory of containment and by neoconservative foreign policy. Anarchy: Realist believe that the int’l system exists in a state of anarchy o States should pay attn to the capabilities of other states instead of their intentions Lack of a central gov’t than can enforce rules Central ordering principle of realism Self help behavior – can’t rely on anyone, only self Survival – collective goods problem rare Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact: 1939; “I won’t attack you if you won’t attack me” – Treaty of nonaggression Ger and Russ. Pact was ruined when Ger attacked S.U. in 1941 the treaty included a secret protocol dividing the independent countries of Finland , Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , Poland , and Romania into spheres of Nazi and Soviet influence was concluded only a few days before the beginning of World War II and which divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence . The Soviet Union had been unable to reach a collective-security agreement with Britain and France against Nazi Germany, most notably at the time of the Munich Conference in September 1938. By early 1939 the Soviets faced the prospect of resisting German military expansion in eastern Europe virtually alone, and so they began searching about for a change of policy. The Soviets also kept negotiating with Britain and France, but in the end Stalin chose to reach an agreement
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IR midterm study - SHORT ID'S: Balancing: N Korea, China,...

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