16 - One World, Many Theories: NATO expansion o Realist: an...

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One World, Many Theories: NATO expansion o Realist: an effort to extend Western influence during a period of Russ weakness and is likely to provoke a harsh response from Moscow. o Liberal: expansion will reinforce the budding/promising democracies of Central Europe and extend NATO’s conflict-management mechanisms to a potentially turbulent region. o A 3 rd view might stress the value of incorporating the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland within the Western security community, whose members share a common identity that has made war largely unthinkable. Realism: o Cold War o Struggle for power among self-interested states o generally pessimistic about the prospects for eliminating conflict and war o neorealist: ignores human nature and focuses on the effects of the int’l system o Morgenthau (classical realist): stressed virtues of multipolar, balance-of-power system and said that the bipolar rivalry btwn the US and SU was really dangerous. o Waltz (neorealist): B/c the international system is anarchic, it would cause weaker states to balance against, rather than bandwagon with, more powerful rivals. He claimed that bipolarity was more stable than multipolarity. o Jervis (“defensive” realism): Offense-Defense theory: war is more likely when states can conquer each other easily. However, when defense is easier than offense, security is more plentiful. And if defense has an advantage, and states can distinguish btwn off. & def. weapons, then states can acquire the means to defend themselves w/out threatening others, thereby dampening the effects of anarchy. o Problem of relative and absolute gains (Grieco and Krasner) anarchy forces states to worry about both the absolute gains from cooperation and the way that gains are distributed among participants. Basically, if one state reaps larger gains than its partners, it will gradually become stronger, and its partners will eventually become more vulnerable. o (Posen) ethnic conflict: breakup of multiethnic states could place rival ethnic groups in an anarchic setting, thereby triggering intense fears and tempting each group to use force to improve its relative position. o (Mastando): US realist in foreign policy b/c its actions are designed to preserve US predominance and to shape a postwar order that advances American interests. o Split btwn “defensive” and “offenseive” strands of thought Defensive States had little intrinsic (inherent) interest in military conquest Costs of expansion generally outweigh benefits Great wars occur b/c domestic groups foster exaggerated perceptions of threat and an excessive faith in the efficacy (effectiveness) of military force. War is rarely profitable and usually results from militarism, hypernationalism,
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course POLS 160 taught by Professor Notgoingtotell.. during the Fall '08 term at Beloit.

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16 - One World, Many Theories: NATO expansion o Realist: an...

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