IR hmwk notes

IR hmwk notes - Hmwk notes 9/3 Goldstein and Pevehouse...

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Hmwk notes 9/3 Goldstein and Pevehouse pp.2-33 IR revolved around one key problem: How can a group- such as 2+ nations- serve its collective interests when doing so requires its members to forgo their individual interests? Collective goods problem: problem of how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it. o Collective goods are easier to provide in small groups rather than large ones Possible solutions to problem of getting individuals to cooperate for the common good w/out a central authority to make them do so: DOMINANCE, RECIPROCITY, and IDENTITY Dominance = imposing solutions hierarchically o example: UN Security Council, where the world’s 5 strongest military powers hold a veto o advantages: order, stability o disadvantages: oppression, resentment Reciprocity = rewarding behavior that contributes to the group and punishing behavior that pursues self interest at the expense of the group. o Examples: If one country opens its markets to another’s goods, the other opens its markets in return. Also, if 1 country expels a certain # of diplomats from another country for spying, the other country always responds within days by expelling the same # of diplomats from the first country. Also applies to arms races. o Advantages: incentives for mutual cooperation o Disadvantages: Downward Spirals; complex accounting Identity= members care about the interests of others in the community enough to sacrifice their own interests to benefit others o Large foreign aid contributions of Scandinavian countries, Canada participation in peacekeeping o Advantages: sacrifice for group, redefine interests o Disadvantages: demonizing an out-group Issue areas: issues on which scholars and forgein policy makers focus attention. o Examples: global trade, the environment, Arab-Israeli conflict Conflict and cooperation: the types of actions that states take toward each other through time Main subfields in IR: International security (less popular after Cold War) and IPE IPE (international political economy): trade and financial transactions Most important actors in IR… o State: Territorial entity controlled by a govt and inhabited by a population Answers to no higher authority (sovereign) Population forms a civil society – has developed institutions to participate in political or social life Nation = population that shares a group identity International System = the set of relships among the world’s states, structured according to certain rules and patterns of interaction. Some rules are explicit, others are implicit. Taiwan is referred to as a state but isn’t recognized as a state – it operates independently in practice but is claimed by China and is not a UN member There are about 200 state or quasi-state actors similar to this o Non state Actors = transnational actors IGOs (intergovernmental organizations) = orgs whose members are national govts
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IR hmwk notes - Hmwk notes 9/3 Goldstein and Pevehouse...

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