Determination of Density

Determination of Density - Determination of Density1...

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Determination of Density 1 Authors: B. D. Lamp, D. L. McCurdy, V. M. Pultz and J. M. McCormick* Last Update: September 19, 2006 Introduction Not so long ago a statistical data analysis of any data set larger than a few points was a time-consuming and tedious procedure. This was changed first by the introduction of personal computers and then by spreadsheets, which are computer programs that allow the user to enter and manipulate numerical data. Spreadsheets were originally designed for business applications, but have become essential tools for data analysis in all of the sciences, because of the ease with which they can perform complex calculations, and graph the results. Many hand-held calculators can perform similar tasks, but spreadsheets have the advantage because they store data in an easily edited form and produce higher-quality graphs. In this exercise you will learn the basics of statistical data analysis and of spreadsheet operations using the program Excel ® . The data that you will manipulate will be measured values of copper’s density obtained by first measuring a copper block’s dimensions and then by water displacement. Before reading this exercise and preparing your notebook, read the Introduction to Statistics in Chemistry , Preparing Graphs and Guide to Excel ® pages. You may want to have hard copies of these documents on hand as you work on this exercise. Save your work either on a floppy disk or on your network (Y:) drive and back it up frequently. Experimental Determination of Density using a Ruler to Measure the Volume Before coming to lab, prepare the following tables in your laboratory notebook and label them as shown. Leave enough space in your notebook so that each table has twelve blank rows for data (there may be up to twelve groups in your laboratory). Notice how each table organizes the data in a format that is easy to read and understand. Block Number Length (cm) Width (cm) Height (cm) Mass (g) Volume (cm 3 ) Uncertainty in the Volume (cm 3 ) Table 1. Class data for copper’s density as determined by measuring the dimensions of the block and its mass. Block Mass (g) Volume H 2 O Density (g/cm 3 ) Uncertainty in the
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Number Displaced (mL) Density (g/cm 3 ) Table 2. Class data for copper’s density as determined by water displacement. You will be assigned a copper block; write down the number of your block in your notebook, and make all of your measurements on the same block. Describe the block’s color, texture and appearance in your notebook's Results section being as descriptive as possible. Obtain the mass of the block to three decimal places using one of the top-loading balances located in the laboratory. Do not set the block directly on the balance pan. Rather, place a piece of weighing paper or a plastic weigh boat on the pan. Zero the
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