Study Guide \u2013 Exam 2 - cfw_Psychology Study Guide Exam 2 Theory vs Hypothesis Theory A general explanation that organizes observations and predicts

Study Guide u2013 Exam 2 - cfw_Psychology Study Guide Exam...

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{ Psychology Study Guide Exam 2 } Theory vs. Hypothesis Theory: A general explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events Hypothesis: a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research Correlation Coefficient Perfect positive: +1.0 Perfect negative: -1.0 No correlation: 0 ***weak when close to 0 and strong when close to 1 Goals of Scientific Method Methods of Observation: description Correlation: prediction Experimentation: explanation (causation) Sources of Bias in Experimental Research Selection Bias: any process that may create groups not equivalent at the beginning of the study, e.g., when participants are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study Avoid with: random assignment Placebo Effect: a physiological or psychological change that occurs as a result of the mere suggestion that the change will occur Avoid with: use placebo Demand Characteristics: aspect of the research that suggests to the participant what behavior is expected Avoid with: use cover stories (deception) Experimenter Bias: any effect the expectation of the researcher might have on the measurement of the dependent variable Avoid with: naïve vs. blind experimenters Experimenter Bias Naïve experimenters: don’t know hypothesis Blind experimenters: research assistants are unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment Double-blind study: avoid confounding variables Characteristics of Experiments Independent Variable: variable that experimenter manipulates Dependent Variable: variable that experimenter measures
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Experimental Control: neither the participants nor the research assistants collecting the data will know which group is receiving the treatment Parts of a neuron: Cell body (Soma) : contains the nucleus Dendrites : branch out from cell body & receive signals from other neurons Axon :
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