Study Guide \u2013 Exam 3 - cfw_Psychology Study Guide Exam 3 Types of attributions Situational attribute a persons behavior to some external cause or

Study Guide – Exam 3 - cfw_Psychology Study Guide Exam 3...

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{ Psychology Study Guide Exam 3 } Types of attributions… Situational: attribute a persons behavior to some external cause or factor such as social pressure Sven dresses so well because his mom picks his clothes out for him; Sita won the race because she has a really good coach Dispositional: attribute the behavior to some internal cause, such as a personal trait Coral was yelling at her friend because she is a mean and unsympathetic person Attribution biases Fundamental attribution bias assumption that others act predominantly on the basis of their dispositions, even when there is evidence suggesting the importance of their situations Self-serving bias tendency to attribute our successes to dispositional (internal) causes and blame our failures on situational (external) causes Actor-observer effect tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational factors but to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional factors Three components of an attitude Cognitive component thoughts and beliefs about an attitudinal object Emotional component feelings toward attitudinal object Behavioral component predisposition to act toward attitudinal object Know… The A-B Problem : The issue of how well we can predict behavior on the basis of attitudes Cognitive dissonance: discomfort and/or distress that result when an individual’s attitudes do not match up with his/her behaviors Mere exposure effect : tendency to feel more positively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated exposure to it Peripheral vs. Central Route Central: high personal involvement; high elaboration, careful processing of info, attitude change depends on quality of arguments Peripheral: low personal achievement; low elaboration, careful processing of info does not occur, attitude change depends on presence of persuasion cues (e.g., attractiveness of person delivering message, expert source) Know… Mere exposure effect : tendency to feel more positively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated contact with it Attitude similarity : more similar attitudes, high ratings of attractiveness
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Attraction-similarity hypothesis : people are more likely to be romantically attracted to people who are similar in physical attractiveness than to people who are notably more or less attractive Social influence Social norms : learned, socially-based rules of behavior Norm of reciprocity : tendency to respond to others as they acted toward you Deindividuation : the process by which group members may discontinue self- evaluation and adopt group norms and attitudes; heightened arousal & cohesiveness w/group resulting in reduced sense of personal responsibility & accountability for behavior Conformity : change behavior or beliefs to match others (due to real or imagined group pressure) Compliance Techniques Foot-in-the-door techinique: start with a small request then follow up with a bigger one EX// A graduate student in biology asks you to sign a petition to support “saving the javelinas”.
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