weathering - Principles of Geology Chapter 6 Weathering and...

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Principles of Geology Chapter 6 Weathering and Soil Chapter Outline Physical weathering Chemical weathering Factors controlling the rate of weathering The final product: soil Earth’s external processes Weathering – the physical breakdown (disintegration) and chemical alteration (decomposition) or rock at or near Earth’s surface Erosion – the physical removal of material by mobile agents such as water, wind, ice, or gravity Mass wasting – the transfer of rock and soil downslope under the influence of gravity Weathering Two basic types of weathering Mechanical (physical) weathering breaking of rocks into smaller pieces without changing their composition Chemical Weathering Breaks down rock components and change its mineral and chemical composition Mechanical Weathering Four types of mechanical weathering Frost wedging – alternate freezing and thawing of water in fractures and cracks promotes the disintegration of rocks Unloading – exfoliation of igneous and metamorphic rocks at the Earth’s surface due to a reduction in confining pressure Thermal expansion – alternate expansion and contraction due to heating and cooling Biological activity – disintegration resulting from plants and animals Development of Joints and Cracks by Unloading
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Weathering Chemical Weathering Breaks down rock components and internal structures of minerals Most important agent involved in chemical weathering is water (responsible
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weathering - Principles of Geology Chapter 6 Weathering and...

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