02/05/08 Lecture Notes

02/05/08 Lecture Notes - Tuesday, February 5th Types of...

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Tuesday, February 5 th Types of Neuron Communication 1. Electrical- action potentials 2. Chemical- synapses, neurotransmitters Identifying Neurotransmitters: - had to block them to discover them - if body responds to a drug, it means that something that naturally occurs that is similar is being disrupted Recall: How to stop a signal from firing: 1. Reuptake 2. Enzyme deactivation 3. Autoreception Basic Neurotransmitters 1. Dopamine a. Function i. Reward, positive feelings, motivation, voluntary movement b. Malfunction i. No dopamine = Parkinson’s disease (how we know about movement part because w/ Parkinson’s, you get tremors ii. Too much dopamine (meth, others) 1. Low doses- euphoria, wakefulness, activity, decreased appetite, confidence, physical stimulation 2. High Doses- intense pleasure, irritability, insomnia, confusion, hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia, increased aggression 3. Higher Doses- hypothermia, convulsions, death c. Drugs i. In almost every recreational drug (not necessarily primary one) ii. Crystal Meth- an agonist- too much dopamine iii. Stem cells can be good producers of dopamine 1. why Parkinson’s people want stem cell research iv. Cocaine/Amphetamines 1. blocks reuptake. Prevents reabsorption 2. dopamine builds up and continues to stimulate receptor. 2. Acetylcholine a. Function i. Messages about muscle movement ii. Learning, memory, sleeping, dreaming b. Malfunction i. Alzheimer’s- ACh producing neurons deteriorate c. Drugs i. Curare- blocks ACh receptors 1. south African darts 2. surgery
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ii. Botulism 1. in food 2. inhibits release of n’transmitters iii. Nicotine 1. makes you jittery, people that smoke only when drinking to enhance the effect 2. increases short term memory recall 3. nicotine patch users report having vivid dreams 3. Norepinepherine a. Function i. Eating, alertness, arousal- excitatory ii. States of focused attention iii. Released from Locus Coeruleus 1. sensitive to light- tells you to wake up 2. goes to hypothalamus b. Malfunction i. Undersupply can depress mood ii. Decreased in people with depression (dopamine, serotonin too) c. Drugs i. For depression, certain drugs only target one specific n’transmitter, so it is necessary to try more than one to find what works
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSY 151 taught by Professor Silman during the Spring '08 term at Wake Forest.

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02/05/08 Lecture Notes - Tuesday, February 5th Types of...

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