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REVIEW FOR TEST #3 – GEO 109/SCI 210 Winter 2008 KLOSTERMAN The third test will cover all of the material presented in the third module “Fluid Earth Systems”. The format will be a combination of short answers and short essays. Below are review questions - I will ask some of these directly as short essays and some in the form of short answer. There will be no “surprise” essay questions. In other words, if you can answer each of the review questions in a complete, accurate and probably lengthy paragraph, you will probably do very well on the test. A complete answer would include definitions, explanations and examples. An accurate answer presents material that is consistent with the presentations/readings. To do this, at least one or two paragraphs would be needed. You should prepare independently for the test. Students writing identical essays on the test will not receive full credit. I will provide assistance with clarification of essay questions or give comments with respect to ideas you run by me. I will not “start from scratch” and re-present material. Some Tips: Concentrate on these questions, your notes, WebCT notes and your text. WRITE OUT YOUR QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE – I think there is a strong connection between your eye, your hand and your brain! BRING A CALCULATOR AND A RULER Review Questions: 1. Define the terms alluvium : any kind of loose deposits by rivers , Discharge ( غرفي ) : The velocity of water flowing through any cross-section of a stream or river in unit time. Stream Discharge: Stream Velocity X Cross Sectional Area Competence: is the maximum particle size a stream can carry. Capacity: is the sediment load a stream can carry; or the total amount of sediment it can carry . Then use these terms as part of your description of braided streams, meandering streams and deltas. Your description of each stream type should be at least two sentences each. [I will also give you a picture of each stream type for you to identify]. Braided Streams : Demonstrate a high competence typically due to high velocity of higher elevations ( عافترا ) upstream. Then once the stream levels out on flatter ground (ex. a prairie), coarse sediments drop out in bars of sand and gravel ( ىصح ).
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Meandering Streams : Unlike braided streams, meandering streams form on a gentle gradient and typically have a high capacity. If a soft substrate is present, the high capacity of the stream will erode ( تحني ) the walls of the channel (especially outer walls, creating curves and loops ( وأ دقع تاقلح ). Deltas form when velocity is lost when a stream enters standing water (such as the ocean). The capacity and competence drops and sediments drop out and are deposited.
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