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bio exam 2 Transcription and translation

bio exam 2 Transcription and translation - Transcription...

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Transcription and translation what did British physician Archibald Garrod propose Some human diseases were genetically inherited due to the lack of an enzyme What did Beadle and Edward Tatum discover They provided strong support for the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis by studying Neuospora , which is bread mold what does the flow of genetic information look like DNA RNA Protein Give specific details for the flow of genetic information 1.genes contain information for making proteins 2. genetic information is “transcribed” from DNA into RNA 3. information contained in RNA is then “translated” into protein DNA blank information Stores, like the blueprints to a machine Proteins and sometimes RNA performs biological blank Work, like what a machine does What is transcription The synthesis of RNA from genetic information contained in DNA One of the two strands of DNA provides what in transcription It provides a template for the synthesis of a new complimentary strand of mRNA What is the function of mRNA Carries the genetic message from the DNA to be carried out by the protein Define translation Synthesis of polypeptide from information contained in mRNA Where does translation occur on ribosomes in cytosol or membrane bound What is the purpose of transfer RNA (tRNA) Provides the physical link between mRNA and amino acids Describe protein synthesis in prokaryotes mRNA produced by transcription is immediately translated into protein without further processing Describe protein synthesis in Eukaryotes in more detail 1. transcription results in pre-mRNA 2. pre-mRNA processed in mRNA in nucleus 3. mRNA transported out of nucleus 4. translation occurs in ribosomes How many nucleotides and amino acids are there in the genetic code 4 and 20 How many nucleotides are need to code one amino acid 3 thus 4^3= 64, which is enough to make 20 amino acids What is a codon The mRNA base triplets The genetic code is blank but not blank Redundant but not ambiguous What codon encodes the start of translation AUG which also is the amino acid methionine(Met)
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Which three codes encode the termination of translation UAA, UAG, UGA What was the contribution of Marshall Nierenberg He synthesized an artificial mRNA by linking uracil whose codon is UUU What enzyme catalyzes the mRNA synthesis RNA polymerase What is the promoter Where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription and unwinds the DNA
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