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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Review. (1) Earthquakes are vibrations of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy from rocks that rupture because they have subjected to stresses beyond their limit. This energy, which takes the form of waves, radiates in all directions from the earthquakes source, called the focus. The movements that produce most earthquakes occur along large fractures called faults that are usually associated with plate boundaries. (2) Along a fault, rocks store energy as they are bent. As slippage occurs at the weakest point (the focus), displacement will exert stress farther along a fault, where additional slippage will occur until most of the built- up strain is released. An earthquake occurs as the rock elastically returns to its original shape. The springing back of the rock is termed elastic rebound . Small earthquakes, called foreshocks , often precede a major earthquake. The adjustments that follow a earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes called aftershocks . (3) Two main types of seismic waves are generated during an earthquake: (1) surface waves , which travel along the outer layer of Earth; and (2) body waves , which travel through Earth's interior. Body waves are further divided into primary, or P, waves , which push (compress) and pull (expand) rocks in the direction the wave is traveling, and secondary or S waves , which shake the particles in rock at right angles to their direction of travel. The P waves can travel through solids, right angles to their direction of travel....
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- Winter '08