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Unformatted text preview: Flowcharting Symbols: • Start/End: begins and ends the process • Input/Output : used to represent any type of input or output. Common types include Input, Display (to screen), and Print (to paper) • Decision : is a junction where a decision must be made. A single entry may have any number of alternative solution choices, but only one can be chosen. • Process : used to represent any type of function or action. This symbol may be used to represent one step or a sequence of steps. • Connector : used when more than one flow arrow head needs to come together. • Flow: represents movement to the next operation Control Patterns: • Sequence : one step completed then next • Selection : (condition) answer to decision causes a branch in the process o If Then Else o Nested If Then o Multiway structure • Repetition : (aka loop/iteration) allows one or more actions to be repeated, a step or set of steps is repeated until a certain condition is met o Decision-First (While) Loop o Action-First (Repeat) Loop logic flow order of precedence Programming Logic low-level language: generally written to interface with a specific type of hardware, such as a specific computer processor o ex: machine and assembly languages, tedious for humans to write directly because the instructions are very detailed and specific and it therefore requires many small instructions to accomplish a given task high-level language: subsets of human languages and use defined command words and specific grammar, allows for more intuitive, less tedious way, easier to read o either language could be considered the best Compiler: interpreter into computer language, translates a complete high-level language program, such as C++ or Pascal, into a complete machine language program to be then run on a computer interpreter: sequentially translates each programming statement or instruction into machine language when the program is run o one statement is translate and executed then the next statement is translated o slower than compiled programs because translation happens at run time on the local machine o ex: HTML and VBA syntax error: uses incorrect keywords or grammar, syntax is wrong o caught by programming software runtime error: errors that do not violate the specified syntax of the programming language but are logically incorrect o Usually not caught by programming software o logic error: runtime errors are often caused by incorrect logic known as logic error o Three methods commonly used to find runtime errors are visual examination of the code, code stepthroughs with a debugger, and test cases...
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- Winter '08
- Relational model, ex, Database management system, Type system