CH1 PPT Outline - 1 Information Systems Management in the Global Economy Chapter 1 Information Systems Management in Practice 8th Edition 2 Chapter

CH1 PPT Outline - 1 Information Systems Management in the...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/5/15 1 Information Systems Management in the Global Economy Chapter 1 Information Systems Management in Practice 8th Edition 2 Chapter 1–Outline & Objectives l Introduction l Themes of this Book l Management of IS l A Little History l The Organizational Environment l The External Business Environment l The Internal Organizational Environment l Goals of the New Work Environment 3 Chapter 1 cont’d l The Technology Environment l Hardware Trends l Software Trends l Data Trends l Communication Trends l The Mission of IS Organizations l A Simple Model 4 Chapter 1 cont’d l A Better Model l The Technologies l The Users l System Development and Delivery l IS Management l Organization of This Book 5 Introduction l Information technology (IT) is a pervasive element of society today and has revolutionized and restructured many aspects of human endeavor, including work. l This book emphasizes the use of IT in managing and operating organizations. 6 Themes of This Book l Globalization l Worldwide expansion of brands and the emergence of global institutions after World War II 1 l IS Management l Organization of This Book 5 Introduction l Information technology (IT) is a pervasive element of society today and has revolutionized and restructured many aspects of human endeavor, including work. l This book emphasizes the use of IT in managing and operating organizations. 6 Themes of This Book l Globalization l Worldwide expansion of brands and the emergence of global institutions after World War II l American multinational enterprises’ foreign direct investments in other countries l IS organization must balance global IT enterprise goals with local systems needs l E-enablement l Leveraging of IT to build relationships with consumers and other enterprises in general 7 Themes of This Book cont’d l Business intelligence through knowledge sharing and knowledge management l Transfer of knowledge between people l Elicit tacit knowledge that people possess 8 Management of IS l Governance of IT l Collaborative effort between IS, the business and their constituencies l The Role of IS l System integration and infrastructure development l Outsourcing l Development and management of relationships with external service providers 9 A Little History l 1950s: Calculator l Bookkeeping activities l Texas Instrument invented first handheld calculator l 1960s: Mainframe l Data-intensive business transactions and accounting l IBM mainframe 10 A Little History cont’d l 1970s: Database management systems l Operational efficiency l Structured Query Language (SQL) first developed by IBM 10/5/15 2 9 A Little History l 1950s: Calculator l Bookkeeping activities l Texas Instrument invented first handheld calculator l 1960s: Mainframe l Data-intensive business transactions and accounting l IBM mainframe 10 A Little History cont’d l 1970s: Database management systems l Operational efficiency l Structured Query Language (SQL) first developed by IBM l Oracle and SAP emerged as key players l 1980s: Personal Computer (PC), decision support systems l Office automation (OA) and decision-making l IBM released first PC (hardware) with Microsoft MS-DOS operating system (software) 11 A Little History cont’d l 1990s: Internet and Enterprise Resource Planning l Global communication and exponential growth in use of computers for OA and networking l Microsoft Windows and Office Suite l Email, instant messaging, World Wide Web l 2000s: Internet and Social Fabric l Global coordination and cooperation (strategic partnerships) within and between businesses l Web services, e-supply chains l Social computing for business applications 12 A Little History 13 The Organizational Environment l External forces that cause IS executives to re-examine how their firms compete and internal structural forces that affect how organizations operate or are managed. l External business environment l Internal organizational environment l Goal of new work environment 14 The External Business Environment l Internet economy l IT underpins old and new ways of doing business l Physical and electronic marketplace l Global Marketplace l Internet has accelerated firms’ internationalization process l Born global l Micro-markets l Micro-commoditization and micro-consumption 10/5/15 3 l Internal organizational environment l Goal of new work environment 14 The External Business Environment l Internet economy l IT underpins old and new ways of doing business l Physical and electronic marketplace l Global Marketplace l Internet has accelerated firms’ internationalization process l Born global l Micro-markets l Micro-commoditization and micro-consumption l Digital microproducts § iTunes, Amazon shorts, Disney short videos l Business ecosystems l Relationships and growth that are organic in nature 15 The External Business Environment cont’d l Decapitalization l Emphasis on intangible assets l Faster business cycles l First-mover advantage l Instant gratification l Accountability and transparency l IT’s role in corporate governance l Rising societal risks of IT l Job losses due to technology substitution and outsourcing l Information security 16 The Internal Business Environment l From supply-push to demand-pull l Customer-centric philosophy l Value co-creation with customer § IT allows business to achieve this on a large scale l Self-service l Customer empowerment (through customization) l Customers know what they want best l Real-time working l Derive competitive advantage l Team-based working l For the duration of projects and tasks (ephemeral) 17 The Internal Business Environment cont’d l Anytime, anyplace information work l Tele-work, mobile computing l Outsourcing and strategic alliances l Use of IT to help manage work across the extended 10/5/15 4 l Customer empowerment (through customization) l Customers know what they want best l Real-time working l Derive competitive advantage l Team-based working l For the duration of projects and tasks (ephemeral) 17 The Internal Business Environment cont’d l Anytime, anyplace information work l Tele-work, mobile computing l Outsourcing and strategic alliances l Use of IT to help manage work across the extended enterprise l Demise of hierarchy l Flatter organization (employee empowerment) l Use of IT to facilitate information exchange 18 Business Strategies in the New Work Environment l Leverage knowledge globally l Tap into intellectual capital across the entire enterprise l McKinsey’s l Organize for complexity l Interconnectivity and interdependence of businesses l  Work electronically l Concept of the workspace l Handle continuous and discontinuous change l Built to change (innovation) l Total quality management (continuous) l Reengineering (discontinuous) 19 The Technology Environment l The technological (IT) environment has a symbiotic relationship with organizational structure (co-evolution) l Hardware Trends l Software trends l Data trends l Communication trends 20 Hardware Trends l Movement of central administration to distributed computing l 1950s and 1960s (mainframe) l Mainframe, batch-processing, back-end data centers l 1970s (minicomputer) l Some autonomy at the department level l 1980s and early 1990s (personal computer) l PCs greatly accelerated process of decentralization § Client-server model l Late 1990s and 2000s (Web, networks and mobile/ 10/5/15 5 l Communication trends 20 Hardware Trends l Movement of central administration to distributed computing l 1950s and 1960s (mainframe) l Mainframe, batch-processing, back-end data centers l 1970s (minicomputer) l Some autonomy at the department level l 1980s and early 1990s (personal computer) l PCs greatly accelerated process of decentralization § Client-server model l Late 1990s and 2000s (Web, networks and mobile/ handheld) l Centralized computing via networks and the Internet 21 Software Trends 1. Transaction processing application development l Emphasis on improving productivity of programmers 2. Life cycle development methodology l Focus on rigorous project management techniques 3. Purchased software vs. in-house development l “Programming” shifted to end-users l Point-and-click applications 4. Open systems software vs. proprietary software 5. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems 6. Web services—service oriented architecture (SOA) l Network centric and loosely coupled applications to support business process requirements 22 Data Trends l 1970s: Technical solutions for managing data l Database management systems (DBMS) l Centralized environment for first 20 years l 1990s: Shift toward managing information resources l Concepts/ideas as a function of raw data l Voice, video, graphics, animation l Decentralized environment of information access and exchange (end-user level) l Require data warehousing and data mining technologies l 2000s: Web content management l Standardize formats of and make interoperable huge amounts of data on Web sites l e.g., Extensible Markup Language (XML) 23 Communications Trends l 1980s: Enterprise networking l Local area networks (LAN) within organization site l Wide area networks (WAN) between organization sites 10/5/15 6 l Voice, video, graphics, animation l Decentralized environment of information access and exchange (end-user level) l Require data warehousing and data mining technologies l 2000s: Web content management l Standardize formats of and make interoperable huge amounts of data on Web sites l e.g., Extensible Markup Language (XML) 23 Communications Trends l 1980s: Enterprise networking l Local area networks (LAN) within organization site l Wide area networks (WAN) between organization sites l Private leased lines l 1990s onwards: Internet (convergence of telecommunications and information systems) l Invention of modulator/demodulator (MODEM) l Dialup, ISDN and other broadband technologies to solve problem of last mile l Internet protocols (TCP/IP) became de facto standard for LANs and WANs l Voice over IP l Wireless technologies 24 The Mission of IS Organizations l Transaction processing systems (TPS) in the early days l “Paper factories” l MIS era l Producing reports for all levels of management l Today’s context l Improve the performance and innovativeness of people in the organization using IT l Business results as a metric for IS performance 25 A Simple Model l IS functions in organizations l Figure 1-2 represents the process of applying IT to accomplish useful work l Figure 1-3 describes the increasing power and complexity of IT l More specialization required of IS professionals l Figure 1-4 depicts the increasing IT sophistication and efficacy of users 26 A Simple Model cont’d 27 A Simple Model cont’d 28 A Simple Model cont’d 10/5/15 7 l Figure 1-2 represents the process of applying IT to accomplish useful work l Figure 1-3 describes the increasing power and complexity of IT l More specialization required of IS professionals l Figure 1-4 depicts the increasing IT sophistication and efficacy of users 26 A Simple Model cont’d 27 A Simple Model cont’d 28 A Simple Model cont’d 29 A Better Model l  An expanded model with four principal elements to describe IS function 1. A set of technologies that represent the IT infrastructure installed and managed by the IS department l Web services, mobile applications, integration of multimedia and consumer electronics 2. A set of users who need to use IT to improve their job performance (Figure 1-5) l Support procedure-based activities l Support knowledge-based activities 30 A Better Model cont’d 31 A Better Model cont’d 3. A delivery mechanism for developing, delivering and installing applications l Bridging the gap between technology and users (Figure 1-6) 4. Executive leadership to manage the entire process of applying the technology to achieve organizational objectives and goals l Executive team must work together to govern and leverage IT well §  C-level executives, divisional and department heads 32 A Better Model cont’d 33 Organization of This Book l Part 1: Leadership l Chapters 2 - 4 l Strategic issues that are the responsibility of the CIO § Chapter 2: Evolution of IS function and CIO’s job § Chapter 3: Strategic uses of IT § Chapter 4: IS planning 10/5/15 34 Organization of This Book cont’d 8 §  C-level executives, divisional and department heads 32 A Better Model cont’d 33 Organization of This Book l Part 1: Leadership l Chapters 2 - 4 l Strategic issues that are the responsibility of the CIO § Chapter 2: Evolution of IS function and CIO’s job § Chapter 3: Strategic uses of IT § Chapter 4: IS planning 34 Organization of This Book cont’d l Part 2: Technologies l Chapters 5 - 8 l Management of the essential information technologies § Chapter 5: Distributed systems architecture § Chapter 6: Building and managing telecommunications § Chapter 7: Managing corporate information resources § Chapter 8: Managing day-to-day operations 35 Organization of This Book cont’d l Part 3: Developing and delivering systems l Chapters 9 - 11 l Developing and delivering primarily procedure-based systems § Chapter 9: Evolution of system development, and the tools and approaches § Chapter 10: Issues in system development and delivery § Chapter 11: Information security 36 Organization of This Book cont’d l Part 4: Supporting Work l Chapters 12 - 14 l Different types of information systems that support work § Chapter 12: Supporting decision-making § Chapter 13: Supporting collaboration § Chapter 14: Supporting knowledge work l Part 5: Thinking ahead l Chapter 15 l Projects the role of IT in the future 37 MeadWestvaco Corporation Case Example: Structure and evolution of IS in an organization l 1960s and 1970s l Reorganization of information services l 1980s l Focus on end-user computing l Late 1980s 10/5/15 9 § Chapter 14: Supporting knowledge work l Part 5: Thinking ahead l Chapter 15 l Projects the role of IT in the future 37 MeadWestvaco Corporation Case Example: Structure and evolution of IS in an organization l 1960s and 1970s l Reorganization of information services l 1980s l Focus on end-user computing l Late 1980s l Structure adjustment l 1990s l A new strategy to leverage the IT infrastructure l 2000s l New organizational structure to enable technology integration and creation of a global, process-based, business-driven organization 38 MeadWestvaco Corporation 39 MeadWestvaco Corporation 40 10/5/15 MeadWestvaco Corporation cont’d Case Example: Structure and evolution of IS in an organization l Into the 2000s l Leverage centralization l Governance structure and standardization l 2004 l Creating the process-based, business-driven EIS organization 41 10 ...
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  • Fall '15
  • External business environment, new work environment, Little History, Simple Model cont, l The Technologies

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