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Exam 1 - Vocabulary Developmental biology is the discipline...

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Vocabulary Developmental biology- is the discipline that studies embryonic and other developmental processes. Cell division, cell differentiation, pattern formation. Differentiation- the development of specialized cell types Cell Cycle G1- cell increases in size, produces RNA, and synthesizes G0- resting/quits dividing Synthesis- DNA replication G2- cell continue to grow and produce protein Mitosis- cell growth and protein production stop; division into daughter cells. Life Cycle Pg. 27 Fertilization - is the fusion of genetic material from two gametes. The egg begins development. Embryogenesis is the stages of development between fertilization and hatching. Cleavage - series of extremely rapid mitotic divisions that immediately follows fertilization. Blastomeres are numerous cells that are formed during cleavage. By the end of cleavage the blastomeres have formed a sphere called a blastula. Gastrulation - is a series of extensive cell rearrangements. During this time, the blastomeres undergo dramatic movements and change their positions relative to one another. As a result of gastrulation the three germ layers form. Ectoderm (blue): generates the outer layer of the embryo. Produces the surface layer of the skin and forms the brain and nervous system. Mesoderm (red): becomes sandwiched between the ectoderm and endoderm. It generates the blood, heart, kidney, gonads, bone, muscles, and connective tissues. Endoderm (yellow): becomes innermost layer of the embryo and produces the epithelium of the digestive tube. Also associated with lung and thyroid cells. Organogenesis - cells interact with themselves and rearrange themselves to produce tissues and organs. Metamorphosis - animal undergoes changes to become sexually mature. Germ cells are precursor cells for gametes and are set aside for reproductive functions. All other cells in the body are called somatic cells. The germ cells migrate to the gonads where they differentiate into gametes. Gametogenesis - is the development of gametes. Meiosis- Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase 1. Chromosomes replicate prior to cell division 2. The replicated chromosomes are held together by a centromere and the four homologous chromatids are paired together (metaphase) 3. The first meiotic division separates the pairs from one another (anaphase) 4. The second meiotic division splits such that each chromatid becomes a chromosome (anaphase II) 5. The net result is four cells with a haploid nucleus (telephase II)
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Cell Differentiation Part 1 Same DNA just different RNA and protein Specification - the fate of a cell or tissue is said to be specified when it is capable of differentiating autonomously when placed in a neutral environment. Still capable of being reversed. Eg. ABCD (in normal development cells become gut) B cell is removed and placed in a different environment. If specified, B cell will develop gut like tissue Determination - a cell or tissue is said to be determined when it is capable of differentiating autonomously even when placed into another region of the embryo. If it is
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