Class Notes

Class Notes - Notes 1/22 Eye can view 200 micons (10-6)...

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Notes 1/22 Eye can view 200 micons (10 -6 ) Light microscope can view 0.2 microns Electron microscope can view 1-2 nanometers Heterochromatin- inactive DNA (DNA not being actively transcribed into RNA); dark condensed areas Euchromatin- active DNA; transparent patches Secretory granules- black spots in cell that signify protein is being made Golgi apparatus- synthesis, packaging for transport, production lysosomes and proteins Endoplasmic reticulum- mechanical support, protein synthesis, and transport Nucleolus- production and assembly of ribosomes Ribosome- produce proteins Mitochondria- ATP production The more infoldings (and dense) within the mitochondria the more ATP production DNA RNA mRNA mRNA affiliates w/ ribosomes and becomes protein OR mRNA affiliates with rough ER golgi apparatus secretory granules Phospholipids group is known as a trilaminar structure Membrane raft- help organize what is going on in a membrane. “A raft of proteins in a sea of phospholipids.” Lab 1/24 The Classic Hematoxylin Very basic, positively charged, binds to acids Stains- DNA, RNA, nucleus, ribosomes, rough ER Blue-purple color Eosin Very acidic, binds to bases Stains- cytoplasmic proteins, cytoplasm, extracellular space Pink color Hematoxylin and eosin staining is often used to detect inflammation or to determine the integrity of a tissue. The Basics Toluidine or Nissle Blue Similar to H&E; usually used for mast cells Sweetness Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) Stains- complex carbohydrates, glycogen, extracellular matrix, muscin Routine stain for liver or kidney Bright red color
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True Colors Masson Trichrome Black or brown nuclei Red keratin and muscle fibers Blue or green collagen and bone (extracellular matrix) Light red or pink cytoplasm Heavy Metal Silver and Gold Brown or black intracellular organelles or entire cell Notes 1/29 Camillo Golgi believed that all the neurons in a cell were connected to one big network. Ramon y Cajal believed that all the cells were separate and that is why only some cells stained while others did not. 1. Cellular Organelles: Vesicles- can be both clear and dark Lysosomes- membrane-bound organelles containing enzymes. They are like the garbage disposals of the cell. Acid phosphate is an enzyme located within the lysosome. Histochemical label (add substrate to enzyme) is restricted to just the lysosome and not to the mitochondria or ribosomes. Peroxisomes (microbodies)- small, membrane-bound organelles that resemble lysosomes. They contain oxidases, which aids in the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is used to kill ingested microorganisms. Peroxisomes also contain catalase, which regulates hydrogen peroxide concentration. 2. Cellular Inclusions:
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIO 335 taught by Professor Henson during the Spring '08 term at Dickinson.

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Class Notes - Notes 1/22 Eye can view 200 micons (10-6)...

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