History Test #11865 end of Civil War1877 end of ReconstructionReconstruction Amendments13thAmendment Was ratified in 1865Slavery abolished14thAmendment Was ratified in 1869Definition of a citizen,gives them due process, equal protection.Male suffrage, restricts states, life liberty & property15thAmendmentRatified in 1870 Full male suffrageCompromise of 18771stmass industrial strike railroads, anarchy to the heart of citizensIn November 1876 there was a tie,IN EXCHANGE…No longer an election dispute.
GAPEGuilded Age Progressive EraFrom 1877 to 1920Guilded Age means “lined in gold”AKA “U2”Twain said that there was too much at the core that wasn’t gold and there would be problemsURBANIZATION-INDUSTRIALIZATION-IMMIGRATIONNot centered on agriculture, but on industry“3 BIG MIGS” (migrations) of Guilded AgeFrom European cities to the WestIn 1800 less than 3% live in cities (6,000) 6 citiesIn 1930 majority live in citiesPittsburgh 1865-1910, 15 million from rural to citiesSteel, elevators, subways are started in era70,000 to 10 million tons per year more than many other countries combinedBesemer= more steal, quicker, and cheaperIn 1870 1.5 billion, in 1990 4.5 billionTransition from craftsman’s to just workers.From 8 to 28 workersCreation of industrial Models
Transition from shops to factory systemIn a small shop one person makes all parts, in a factory every person knows how to do all parts but specializes in one part. (More watches, less money)70%, 6 days a week, 450 dollars a year, 60 hours a weekSteel profits are more then government budgetGuilded Age immigrationTo industrial north, mostly1870-1910, 35 million people move to US which is about the US population at the time¼ leave back out of the 35 millionCome from primarily southern and eastern EuropeLanguage differencesThe scale and source of change causing to loose “Americanism” Push pull migration, push out by murdering, push in moneyCity machine, machine politics, political favors in exchange for food and shelterThis corrupted democratic ways, those immigrating do not know democratic waysSouthAlmost bypassed by U2Small pockets of urban industryExtreme railroad growth
In 1860, south 4thrichest in the worldIn 1865, south one of the poorestSlavery ended, and slaves were wealthThe war destroyed the southIn 1900 the income is ½ of national averageAnd did not reach 75% of pre-war land, because of climate, labor, and landSharecropping: growing cotton and keeping it as wages, more control over labor time and wageTenant farming: To pay rent, rent is cottonThis is a downward cycle of debtCroppers and tenants cannot pay debt until crops are ready and that is if it is enough to pay itSo they decide to grow twice as much, and cotton farms double all over the worlds, so it is more abundant and makes cotton cheaper and more of itFrederick Jackson TurnerAuthor of frontier experienceExplains American developmentThe ending of the frontier closes the first chapter of American historyHomestead Act:Token fee, 160 acres, given to farm itRailroad Enabling Act: