Outline for DS Petroleum Geology

Outline for DS Petroleum Geology - Outline of Nontechnical...

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Outline of Nontechnical Guide to: Petroleum Geology, Exploration, Drilling, and Production Chapters 1,9,10,11,12,13 By: Travis Thompson 3/30/15 1
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I. Chapter 1: The Nature of Gas and Oil A. Petroleum a) Comes from Greek words petro for rock and oleum for oil; the usage of the word “petroleum” includes both oil and natural gas. B. The Chemistry of Oil and Gas a) Two most common elements in both crude oil and natural gas are carbon and hydrogen. b) Hydrocarbons - most of the molecules that make up crude oil and natural gas are composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms. c) Difference between crude oil and natural gas is the size of the hydrocarbon molecules. d) Under surface temperature and pressure any hydrocarbon molecule that has one, two, three, or four carbon atoms occurs as a gas, any hydrocarbon molecule that has five or more carbon atoms occurs as a liquid. e) Natural Gas - mixture of the four short hydrocarbon molecules. f) Crude oil- mixture of several hundred hydrocarbon molecules that range in size from 5 to more than 60 carbons in length and from straight chains, chains with side branches, and circles. C. Crude Oil a) Hydrocarbon Series - four types of hydrocarbon molecules that occur in each crude oil. b) Includes: paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics, and asphaltics c) Hydrocarbons that have only single bonds between carbon atoms are called saturated. d) If they contain one or more double bonds they are unsaturated . e) Paraffin - is a straight chain of carbon atoms with saturated (single) bonds between the carbon atoms. f) Naphthene- is a closed circle with saturated bonds between the carbon atoms, these molecules are five carbon atoms and longer in length. g) Aromatic- is a closed ring with some unsaturated (double) bonds between carbon atoms; these molecules have six carbon atoms and longer in length. h) API gravity- a density scale used to measure the density of crude oil, the higher the API gravity the better quality the crude oil is. i) Sulfur- an undesirable impurity in fossil fuels such as crude oil, natural gas, and coal. When burned it forms sulfur dioxide, a gas that pollutes the air and forms acid rain. This sulfur is removed during the refining process. j) Benchmark crude oils- a standard for a country against which other crude oils are compared, and prices are set. Examples are West Texas Intermediate (WTI) is 38-40 degree API gravity, and .3% Sulfur. k) Pour point- the amount of wax in crude oil is indicated by the pour point. l) Properties of crude oil- color of crude oil ranges from colorless through greenish-yellow, reddish, and brown to black. 2
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1. The smell varies from gasoline (sweet crude) to foul (sour crude) to fruity (aromatic crude). 2. Crude oil has a calorific heat value of 18,300 to 19,500 Btu/lb. m) Crude streams- are oil that can be purchased from an oil-exporting country.
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  • Winter '13
  • Geology, crude oil, reservoir rock

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