Study Sheet ANTH 1013 � Third exam �

Study Sheet ANTH 1013 � Third exam � - Study...

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Study Sheet ANTH 1013 – Third exam –  A list of terms and concepts introduce in class and the readings that are   fair game” for Exam #3.   Eoanthropus dawsoni : also known as the " Piltdown Man "; found by Sir Grafton Smith in Liverpool in 1912- 13; supposedly proved that "missing link" was an Englishman, not an African; it was a modern human skull with an ape  jaw; confirmed Darwin's idea that fundamental human trait was increase in brain size; it turned out to be a hoax by  Martin Hinton; it was believed because the process of human evolution accepted then was 1) Big skull, 2) Humanlike  jaw, 3) Come out of trees --> shows that biases and preconceptions are dangerous  Raymond Dart : in 1925, discovered first  Australopithecus africanus   (which means "Southern Ape of Africa") in  South Africa; the specimen he found was known as the  Taung child ; it had a small skull and humanlike teeth (opposite  of the Piltdown Man); he claimed it was proof that human beings evolved in Africa, not Europe, and he was ignored;  used the foramen magnum as evidence of bipedalism  Robert Broom : Dart's partner in discovering the Taung Child, he continued digging and during the WWII era at a  different cave site in S. Africa, he found skeletons (adults and babies) that were clearly  walking on two legs, at least  two species of  australopithecines , maybe more; proved  humans evolved in Africa; knock-kneed (Valgus knee) so  they could stand on one leg at a time if they wanted  Changes in locomotion as critical to hominin origins.  Note how bias and preconception can color our interpretations of the fossil record:  The Piltdown Man was so  widely accepted for so long because it fit preconceived notions of human evolution, and the Taung child was rejected  even though it was actually an early human ancestor.  Trends in the hominin fossil record :              1) The evolution of bipedalism:                  -First evidence: 5.8 mya ( Ardipithecus ramidus ), but pieces are scrappy and small;                  -First  good  evidence: 4.1-3.9 mya with first member of  Australopithecus                     - Lucy: we have her footprints; she retained curved fingers and toes, long arms, probably came out  of trees to get between                           trees; brain size about 400 cc (upper end of living chimp)                  -First members of  Homo  ( H.   erectus ) :  1.8-1.7 mya: full commitment to terrestriality; look very much  like skeleton of modern human;  no                     
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