Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Sexual Coercion Sexual Assault Sexual assault any non-consensual activity ranging from unwanted touching to forced oral anal or

Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Sexual Coercion Sexual Assault...

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Chapter 16: Sexual Coercion Sexual Assault Sexual assault: any non-consensual activity ranging from unwanted touching, to forced oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse, to sexual violence in which the victim is wounded or maimed or his or her life is endangered or when the victim is incapable of giving consent Spousal sexual Statistics Women with disabilities are at greater risk to experience sexual assault than are women without disabilities Forcible rape is one of the most under reported crimes. 21% of rapes by strangers are reported as to only 2% of the rapes done by an acquaintance are reported Acquaintance sexual assault is more frequent than by a stranger o Many don’t realise it was assault because mostly happens during the dating stage Spousal sexual assault Spousal sexual assault: the sexual assault of a person by his or her current or former marital or common-law spouse 13% of all married women have been martially raped by husband Reasons men rape wives: o (1) argument, takes anger out on wife o (2) power and dominance over wife o (3) husband enjoys inflicting pain Date rape Involving a steady partner 57% of college rapes were date rapes Date rape often caused by miscommunication ( “no” means “NO”) Reasons men misinterpret women’s communications: o (1) men really cant read women’s emotions o (2) hard to distinguish between friendliness and seductiveness o (3) men doubt women are communicating truthfully (suspicious schema) Date rape drug: rohypnal (roofie) causes drowsiness and sleepiness and memory loss Impact of sexual Assault on women Immediately afterwards o Distress peaks at 3 weeks, remains high for following month o Improvement begins 2-3 months are rape o Anxiety, low self-esteem, fear persist up to 18 months o Higher risk of suicidal behavior after rape
Self-Blame: women spends hours agonizing what she did to bring on the sexual assault or what she might have done differently to prevent it( “if I hadn’t done this, then..”) Physical injuries o Cuts, bruises, vaginal pain, bleeding o Contracting STI’s like HIV or herpes o Pregnancy results in 5% of rapes Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : long-term psychological distress suffered by someone who has experienced a terrifying event o Flashbacks, nightmares, avoids location or activities o Predictors of which victims will develop PTSD (1) negative reaction/lack of support from others (2) avoidance coping Post-Traumatic Growth: positive life changed and psychological development following exposure to trauma o Greater sense of purpose, greater ability to care for the self Causes of sexual assault

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