Biol anthro study guide 1

Biol anthro study guide 1 - Genesis: creationist theory;...

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Genesis: creationist theory; universe revolves around us and we are the masters; nothing varies, nothing changes; all forms are fixed Aristotle: the “anti-Darwin”; held back natural sciences for more than 2,000 years; showed minimized variation as imperfections which should be ignored Copernicus: Polish mathematician who posited the heliocentric model of the universe Ptolemy: ancient Greek astronomer who posited the geocentric model of the universe (that Earth is the center and everything revolves around it) heliocentric: the sun is the center of the solar system; posited by Copernicus secularism: view that religious beliefs should be excluded from civic affairs or public institutions binomial nomenclature : in taxonomy, the convention established by Carolus Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species Linnaeus : came up with binomial nomenclature; Swedish naturalist; classification system (Systema Naturae); believed in fixity of species; first named Homo sapiens Buffon : French count; recognized dynamic relationship between external environment and living forms; stressed the importance of change; rejected the idea that one species could give rise to another; evidence: presence of vestigial organs Erasmus Darwin: grandfather of Charles; view that life originated in the seas and that all species had descended from a common ancestor; importance of the environment in evolutionary processes, vast expanses of time for life to evolve, competition for resources; accrued advantages (ex. opposable thumbs---gradual evolution from simple to complex forms) immutability of species: idea that species don’t change (opposite of evolution); widely accepted for a long time Lamarck: first European scientist to attempt to explain the evolutionary process; codified the concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics; considered the father of evolution by French; used giraffe example uniformitarianism: the theory that the earth’s features are the result of long-term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past; elaborated on by Lyell, this theory opposed catastrophism and provided for immense geological time Malthus: population can grow until its resources are exhausted; impulse to multiply is checked by the struggle for existence ; population growth checked by food running out Lyell: Darwin’s mentor; codified uniformitarianism; we can figure out how long changes took to occur Old Earth: Earth is really, really old…like 4.5 billion years Charles Darwin: Anglican clergyman who wanted to explore nature so set up a voyage on the HMS Beagle; he charted the Galapagos Islands and gathered fossils, plants, and animals for British museums; found 13 species of finches on the islands, but only 1 on the coast of Ecuador; in 1859 he published the Origins of Species about his theories Natural selection : the mechanism of evolutionary change first articulated by Charles Darwin; refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ANTH 1013 taught by Professor Nolan during the Fall '08 term at Arkansas.

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Biol anthro study guide 1 - Genesis: creationist theory;...

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