Study Guide 2

Study Guide 2 - ANTH 1013: Exam #2 Review terms/concepts:...

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ANTH 1013: Exam #2 Review terms/concepts: Geological history : the universe is 13.3 billion years old Precambrian: 4.6Ba- 540Ma Hadean, Archaean, Proterozoic Eras earliest life 3.5Ba Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic (540- 225Ma) (age of fish) landplants, amphibians, reptiles Mesozoic (225-65Ma) (age of reptiles) Dinosaurs,mammals Cenozoic (65mya- present) Tertiary Paleocene(65-53Ma) Eocene(53-34), Oligocene(34-22.5) Miocene(22.5-5) Pliocene(5-1.8) Quaternary Pleistocene (1.8- .01) Holocene (.01- now) Mammal evolution : 1) Homeothermy: constant body temperature; internal control = endotherms (generate our own heat); less dependency on sun, but requires lots of energy (high metabolic rate) 2) Heterodontism: having different types of teeth (e.g. 2123); most reptiles have similar types of teeth 3) Intelligence: we’re smart because we’re energy efficient; the brain is the most metabolically expensive organ to run; we can learn (we don’t rely exclusively on genetic traits); we can adapt to changing conditions 4) Egg Retention: most mammals have live births; advantage: egg eaters can’t eat your babies; our babies are completely incapable of even clinging to their mothers; opportunity for learning Mammal subclasses : 1) Monotremes: egg-laying mammals (e.g. platypus, echidnae) 2) Marsupials: live births (viviparous) to extremely premature babies that they keep in pouches 3) Eutherians (Placentals): live births (viviparous) to well-developed young; much more effective placentation; can retain young for longer -mother’s immune system wants to attack baby; monotremes use eggs, marsupials and eutherians use placenta as a barrier -Insectivorans Primate trends 1) Retention of 5 digits 2) nails instead of claws 3) hand/foot flexibility 4) hind limb dominance in locomotion 5) retention of the clavicle 6) generalized dentition (humans: 2123) 7) generalized diet 8) reduction of snouth/olfaction 9) vision & neocortex elaboration
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10) brain complexity 11) elaboration of placenta: allows for more direct contact of blood, longer gestation periods, longer life spans 12) Emphasis on flexible, learned behavior: longer periods of infant/child dependency, parental investment 13) Adult males may associate permanently with the group Primate ecology : interaction between primate and its environment Socioecology : how social systems are affected by environment Ketambe : synecology, feeding/locomotor ecology, look
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ANTH 1013 taught by Professor Nolan during the Fall '08 term at Arkansas.

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Study Guide 2 - ANTH 1013: Exam #2 Review terms/concepts:...

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