Data: Raw Facts (alphanumeric, image, audio, video)
Information: organized collection of facts
: set of interrelated elements that collect, manipulate, store, &
Processes of IS
Input: activity of gathers/capturing raw data
Processing: transforming data into useful outputs
Output: production of useful info
Feedback: output that’s used to make changes to input or processing activities
6 components of CBIS: hardware, software, databases, telecommunications,
Major Types of IS (in chronological order):
Transaction processing systems (1950s): perform/record daily transactions necessary
for business such as airlines, retails stores, banking, etc.
Management information systems (1960s): systems that serve planning, controlling &
decision-making thru routine summaries/reports for managers. Outputs of MIS are
generated to improve operational efficiency.
Decision support systems (1980s): combine data, models & analysis tools for non-
Electronic & mobile commerce systems (2000s): transactions executed electronically.
Mobile meaning business is conducted anywhere/time.
Specialized business information systems: expert systems like a bank loan officer
IS Development Process
– Systems Development Life Cycle: planning
: physical devices that make up a comp. or comp. system
System Unit: essential to process data
CPU: part of comp. that manipulates symbols, #s, letters, & controls the other
parts of the comp. system
Control Unit: accesses program instructions, decodes them, & controls
flow of data
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): simple calculations & logical
Registers: special memory storage built into CPU
How the CPU Works:
CPU Cycle: fetch
CPU Speed: cycles/second, measured in Hz (mega = millions,
giga = billions)
Word-length: number of bits the CPU can process at one time
1 bit = a binary digit
1 byte = 8 bits
Primary Storage: used to store data that’s likely to be in active use.
Random Access Memory (RAM): temporary storage, volatile.