Test 1 - Chapter 1- Basic Concepts: o Data: Raw Facts...

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Chapter 1— Basic Concepts: o Data: Raw Facts (alphanumeric, image, audio, video) o Information: organized collection of facts Information System : set of interrelated elements that collect, manipulate, store, & o Processes of IS o Input: activity of gathers/capturing raw data o Processing: transforming data into useful outputs o Output: production of useful info o Feedback: output that’s used to make changes to input or processing activities o Computer-Based IS o 6 components of CBIS: hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, Major Types of IS (in chronological order): o Transaction processing systems (1950s): perform/record daily transactions necessary for business such as airlines, retails stores, banking, etc. o Management information systems (1960s): systems that serve planning, controlling & decision-making thru routine summaries/reports for managers. Outputs of MIS are generated to improve operational efficiency. o Decision support systems (1980s): combine data, models & analysis tools for non- o Electronic & mobile commerce systems (2000s): transactions executed electronically. Mobile meaning business is conducted anywhere/time. o Specialized business information systems: expert systems like a bank loan officer IS Development Process – Systems Development Life Cycle: planning analysis design implementation maintenance Chapter 2— Hardware : physical devices that make up a comp. or comp. system o System Unit: essential to process data o CPU: part of comp. that manipulates symbols, #s, letters, & controls the other parts of the comp. system Control Unit: accesses program instructions, decodes them, & controls flow of data Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): simple calculations & logical comparisons Registers: special memory storage built into CPU How the CPU Works: CPU Cycle: fetch decode execute store CPU Speed: cycles/second, measured in Hz (mega = millions, giga = billions) Word-length: number of bits the CPU can process at one time 1 bit = a binary digit 1 byte = 8 bits o Primary Storage: used to store data that’s likely to be in active use. Random Access Memory (RAM): temporary storage, volatile.
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Measured in MB or GB Evaluating RAM: physical memory, kernel memory, virtual memory. Adding RAM increases performance Registers: least capacity, fastest memory, volatile Cache memory: high-speed, enables computer to temporarily store blocks of data, volatile Read-only memory: contain start-up instructions. Stores info that can’t be changed/erased. Non-volatile. o
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Test 1 - Chapter 1- Basic Concepts: o Data: Raw Facts...

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