Guided Reading #25“Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800: 1870”
Terms: Ulema:Muslim religious scholars who were against secularization of law and taxation proposed by Selim, and they were one of the opponents along with Janissaries to force Selim to suspend reform program in 1806 Tanzimat: “Restructuring” reforms by the 19th century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureaucracy more efficient. Reforms included public trials and equal protection regardless of religion, rights of privacy, equal eligibility for conscription, a new method oftax collection ending Ottoman tax farming, abolishing special tax for non: Muslims, and all male subjects had equal access to courts. Start of Middle East’s modern thought andenlightened government.Fez:brimless cap worn by Muslims soldiers to solve controversy of European military caps with leather bills that made foreheads touch the ground during prayers Percussion Caps:(1830s: 1840s) Europe adopted percussion caps to eliminate havingto pour gunpowder into a musket’s barrel. Breech:Loading rifles: more accurate and rapid rifles than those that had to be loaded at the barrel that became contribution of Crimean War’s transition to modern weapons. Extraterritoriality:The right of foreign residents in a country to live under the laws of their native country and disregard the host country’s laws. In the 19th and 20th centuries, European and American nationals living in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right after the Opium and Crimean War. “Young Turks”:(Young Ottomans) movement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the 2nd half of 19th century. They promoted European liberal ideas, pride in Ottoman independence, and modern Islamic views, and sultan Abdul Hamid II publicized their drafted constitution. Yet, in 1877, the constitution and newly elected parliament suspended due to threats of war against Russia in Balkans.Bannermen:Hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire, in large part descendantsof peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire. Those who had weapons used hazardous matchlocks (where gunpowder had to be ignited by hand) while most had no guns.Treaty Ports:Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qin Empire and foreign signatories. In the treaty ports, foreigners enjoyed extraterritorialityIn 1842, treaty ports locations increased from Canton to Canton, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai; by 1900, there were 90 treaty ports in ChinaMost-Favored Nation Status: A clause in a commercial treaty that awards to any later signatories all the privileges previously granted to the original signatories. When status was given to Britain, it prevented colonization in China because if land were given to one country, the all other countries would have land too.