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Guided Reading #17“The Diversity of American Colonial Societies, 1530 – 1770”Terms:The Columbian Exchange:Exchange of , peoples, plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world after Columbus' voyages. (European invasion and settlement of Western Hemisphere; native/indigenous peoples had no resistance to old world disease, which caused devastation)The Council of the Indies:Institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to early 18th century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities (Geography limited the Council's real power because a ship needed more than 200 days to make a round trip voyage from Spain to Veracruz)Encomienda :A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. Provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by Amerindians. Obliged grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians (forced labor in Spanish colonies where Amerindian peoples were divided among settlers and were forced to provide them with labor or textiles, food, or other goods)Mita:Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations; one:seventh adult male Amerindians were compelled to work for six months each year in mines, farms, or textile factories.Hidalgos:Lesser nobles; considered the "merchants, artisans, miners, priests, and lawyers"Creoles:In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European decent born in the New World. Elsewhere, term used to describe all non:native peopleEncomenderos: Conquistadors and early settlers who received from the Crown grants of labor and tribute goods; sought to create a hereditary social and political class comparable to the nobles of Europe)Mestizos: Term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed Amerindian and European descentMulattos: Term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descentCastas: : All mixed descent groups in spanish America (mestizos and mulattos; dominated small:scale retailing and construction trades in cities; many were ranchers