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Chapter 3 reading guide– Settling the Northern Colonies 1.How did Martin Luther impact America? Include John Calvin in your explanation. Martin Luther launched the Protestant Reformation by nailing his protests against catholic doctrines to the door of witteberg’s cathedral in 1517. The reformation greatly affected the whole Europe. John Calvin of Geneva, a severe religious leader, was inspired by it. He elaborated Martin Luther’s idea which affected the coming generations of Americans. 2.What are the main tenets of Calvinism? In Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian religion, he argued that God is all-powerful, all-good, all-knowing, and human are weak and wicked. Every human being has a predestination which was given by God: either eternal bliss or eternal torment. Calvinists were constantly in doubts, so they sought signs of conversion, God’s free gift of saving grace. Conversion was an intense personal experience that god reveals your destiny. After defined to have eternal bliss, people will demonstrate holy behavior as saints. 3.Why do you think Puritanism appealed to people struggling with economic hardship? In the beginning of seventeenth century, England’s population was mushrooming and landlords were enclosing croplands for sheep grazing. Many Puritans came from woolen district which lacked commercial. Puritanism provided spiritual comfort to the economically disadvantage. 4.Write a brief timeline showing the travels of the Separatists. 1608: the most famous congregation of separatists departed for Holland. They endured toil and poverty and distress of the “dutchification” from their children. 1620: a group of separatists negotiated with Virginia company for rights to settle under its jurisdiction, but during the sail on their ship Mayflower, they missed the destination and arrived in England. They landed in Plymouth Bay without legal right and authority of building up a government. The leaders sign the Mayflower Compact. 1
1620-1621: Their suffered their first winter, only half of the origin 102 remained alive yet no one left the colony; however they received great harvest the next autumn. 5.Note that many of the early English colonists to Massachusetts Bay were Puritans, but only the first group that landed in 1621 were Separatists. What makes this group so remarkable? What are some of the hardships they faced in the New World This group of separatists suffered from winter and half of them perished. They worked and were blessed by god and brought plentiful harvests the next autumn in New England. They established economics in fur, fish, and lumber and proved their ability to survive in an uninviting region. 6.What is the significance of the Mayflower Compact? It was an agreement to form a crude government and submit opinions of the majority. It led to the step of self-government ( making their own laws in open-discussion meetings) and laboratory of liberty.