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psych studyguide - The seven Perspectives 1 Neuroscience...

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The seven Perspectives 1. Neuroscience- how the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences 2. evolutionary- how nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of one’s genes 3. behavior genetics- how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences 4. psychodynamic- how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts 5. behavioral- how we learn observable responses (rewards vs. punishments) 6. cognitive- how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information 7. social cultural- how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Psychology’s subfields Chapter 1 Hindsight Bias “I knew it all along phenomenon.” – Tendency to believe, after hearing an outcome, that one would have foreseen it Overconfidence- people tend to be more confident than correct- tendency for humans to overestimate what they know Scientific attitude- skepticism, curiosity, and humility Scientific method 1. Observations- these come from looking at the world, and they lead to… 2. Theory- a statement that arranges and predicts observable behaviors or events, this must be tested by forming a… 3. Hypothesis- a tested prediction, which is then tested through research, the results of this lead to more observations ( usually in if…then form) Research Methods 1. Case study- psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth to reveal truths about us all (problems: time consuming, individual may be atypical) 2. naturalistic observations- watching and recording behavior of organisms in their natural environment (problem- obtrusive) 3. survey- look at many cases in less depth by asking people to report their behavior or opinions 4. Correlation- statistical measure of a relationship (reveals how closely two things vary together and thus how well one predicts the other) CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION 5. Experiments a. Independent variable – variable whose effect is studied b. Dependent variable- variable being measured c. Experimental condition- group in an experiment that receives independent variable
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d. Control condition- group that doesn’t receive independent variable Wording effects Correlation coefficient- a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary
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