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phil1020%20sp%20midterm%20answers2 - 1 PHILOSOPHY 1020...

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PHILOSOPHY 1020 Spring 2008 Auburn University Midterm Exam Answers to Parts I and II Part I : (12 points – 2 points each) True or False? 1) According to Glaucon, most people think that justice is valuable only for its consequences. True 2) According to Aristotle, truly virtuous people always take pleasure in doing virtuous things. True 3) According to Aristotle, practical wisdom can be employed in the service of a vicious end. False 4) According to Aristotle, animals and very small children cannot act voluntarily. False (All that is required for a creature to behave voluntarily is for it not to act because of force or because of ignorance. Animals and very small children can meet this condition. What they cannot do is to “choose” their actions, given Aristotle’s definition of “choice” as deliberative desire.) 5) Suppose someone threatens to kill my family if I don’t confess to a crime I didn’t commit, and I confess. Is that action voluntary according to Aristotle? Yes, the action is voluntary . (More precisely, it is more voluntary than not, for it is appropriate to praise and blame me for that action. This is an example of what Aristotle calls a mixed action.) 6) Suppose I think that it is bad for me to go out with my friends the night before my midterm and that I should stay home and study. And suppose further that I overcome my temptation to go out with my friends and stay at home and study. Does my action, according to Aristotle, display virtue? No, the action does not display virtue . (The truly virtuous person wants to do the 1
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virtuous thing, and so would not be tempted to do otherwise.) Part II : (48 points – 4 points each) 1) In Glaucon’s account of the origins of justice, he makes some fundamental assumptions about human nature. What are these assumptions? He makes two fundamental assumptions. First, humans have the innate desire to dominate and victimize others, and second they have the innate fear of being dominated and being victimized . Further, our fear of being dominated is stronger than our desire to dominate. (In order to avoid being dominated each of us agrees to conform his or her behavior to the conventions that we call “justice”.) 2) What according to Glaucon are the three ways in which something can be valued?
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