Chapter 17 - Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

Chapter 17 - Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes -...

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Chapter 17 Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Differs from Regulation in Prokaryotes - eukaryotic cells contain much greater amount of genetic information than prokaryotic - genetic information in eukaryotes is carried on many chromosomes (rather than just one) - transcription occurs in nucleus and translation occurs later in cytoplasm; transcription is spatially and temporally separated from translation - transcripts of eukaryotic genes are processed before transport to the cytoplasm - eukaryote mRNA has much longer half-life than does prokaryotic mRNA - because mRNA is much more stable, eukaryotes extensively utilize translational controls - most eukaryotes are multicellular with differentiated cell types o different cell types typically use typically use different sets of genes to make different proteins, even though each cell contains a complete set of genes Chromosome Organization in the Nucleus Influences Gene Expression - chromosome territory domain that separates chromosomes from other chromosomes - interchromosomal compartments channels between chromosomes - once gene has been moved to the edge of a chromosome territory, initiation of gene expression requires two steps o remodeling and activation of chromatin by enzymes that alter nucleosome structure makes promoter sites accessible to the transcription machinery o recruitment of coactivators that assemble the proteins necessary for transcription, including general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II Transcription Initiation is a Major Form of Gene Regulation - promoters have a modular organization o promoters
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Chapter 17 - Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes -...

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