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Chapter 21 - Dissection of a Gene Function

Chapter 21 - Dissection of a Gene Function - Chapter 21...

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Chapter 21 Dissection of a Gene Function: Mutational Analysis in Model Organisms Geneticists Use Model Organisms That Are Genetically Tractable - model organisms – ideal candidates for genetic analysis in order to dissect the genes and processes that regulate biological function o research goal may be to understand the genetics of cancer in humans or the genetic control of development in an important agricultural plant o good model organisms must be easy to grow, have short generation time, produce abundant progeny, and be readily mutagenized and crossed organism must also carry out biological studies to be studied - features of genetic model organisms o most extensively used eukaryotic organisms – budding yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae), fission yeast (schizosaccharomyces pombe), fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster), nematode (caenorhabditis elegans), mustard plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), and mouse (mus musculus) - yeast as a genetic model organism o genes easily manipulated and characterized in the organism o undergo both haploid and diploid phases in life cycle o alternating haploid and diploid nature of yeast life cycle is useful for genetic analysis easy to detect recessive mutations in haploid cells o large availability of DNA sequence information and collections of mutants and deletion strains - drosophila as a genetic model organism o easily grown and size of genome is easily manageable o easily observed body plan development in embryonic, larval, and adult stage o absence of crossing over in males and only moderate amounts of crossing over in females absence of male crossing over means that it is possible to retain the chromosome linkage relationships of genes that are inherited through the male parent genetic screen techniques is simplified due to feature o does not have haploid phase in life cycle o balancer chromosome multiple overlapping chromosomal inversions as a result of bombardment of drosophila with X rays bear dominant marker gene allows geneticists to visually identify presence of balancer chromosome in individual flies during crosses o geneticists exploit P element transposon as powerful genetic tools mobile transposable elements that can move into and out of drosophila genome elements are harnessed as vectors and introduced into cloned genes of drosophila genome and to assist gene cloning
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- mouse as a genetic model organism o most relevant, accessible model for human disease studies o short generation times of 8-9 weeks o easily kept in laboratory situations and have 8+ offspring per mating o mice and humans have similar body plans and undergo similar steps in development o creation of transgenic organisms mouse with foreign piece of DNA introduced into its genome researchers isolate newly fertilized eggs from female mouse and inject purified transgenic DNA into nucleus of egg eggs replaced into oviduct of pseudopregnant female mouse researchers screen transgenic mice by using sample of tail tissue,
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Chapter 21 - Dissection of a Gene Function - Chapter 21...

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