Chapter 14 - Translation and Proteins

Chapter 14 - Translation and Proteins - Chapter 14...

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Chapter 14 Translation and Proteins translation of mRNA depends on ribosomes and transfer RNAs translation biological polymerization of amino acids into polypeptide chains occurs only in association with ribosomes - ribosomal structure o ribosome plays an essential role in the expression of genetic information o differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes prokaryotes monosome 70S particle, eukaryotes monosome 80S larger subunits in prokaryotes consist of 23S RNA molecule, a 5S rRNA molecule, and 31 ribosomal proteins; eukaryotes, 28S rRNA molecule accompanied by 5.8S rRNA molecule and 49 proteins eukaryotes – many more copies of sequence encoding 28S, 18S, and 5.8S components are present o cluster in eukaryotes consists of tandem repeats with each unit separated by noncoding space DNA - tRNA structure o composed of only 75-90 nucleotides, displays nearly identical structure in bacteria and eukaryotes o posttranscriptional modification unusual/rare/odd bases created following transcription unmodified base is inserted during transcription and enzymatic reactions catalyze chemical modifications to the base o cloverleaf model of tRNA demonstrates secondary structure due to base pairing o anticodon loop was established - charging tRNA o charging activation process occurs under direction of enzymes
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIOL 2500 taught by Professor Finger during the Fall '07 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Chapter 14 - Translation and Proteins - Chapter 14...

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