urinary - Urinary system Components kidneys two produce...

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Urinary system Components: - kidneys – two, produce urine – fluid filtered from blood plasma, contains water, ions and small solutes - urinary tract: composed of ureters (leave kidneys), urinary bladders, urethra (carries urine to outside); the job of the urinary tract is storage and removal of urine after it is generated The kidneys have several functions: - Removing waste from the blood, and thus generating urine – all water soluble waste will leave via the kidney (with the exception of CO2) - Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure - Regulation of plasma concentration of electrolytes - Regulation of blood pH Thus the kidneys are a vital component in controlling most homeostatic parameters (with the exception of body temperature) Kidneys: located on either side of vertebral column. Each has an adrenal gland on top. Connective tissue capsules: - renal capsule, collagen fibers that cover the outer surface of organ - adipose capsule, adipose tissue that covers renal capsule - renal fascia, anchors renal capsule to surrounding structures and to deep fascia if any of this attachment comes apart, will cause floating kidney, which is very dangerous Kidney has 2 layers: - cortex, outer portion, in contact with renal capsule - medulla, consists of 6-12 conical/triangular structures called pyramids. Base of pyramid faces cortex, tip (papilla) faces into renal sinus (internal cavity inside kidney). Adjacent pyramids separated by renal columns, cortical tissue that projects into medulla. urine is produced in renal lobes. Ducts in papilla drain into minor calyx, which merge to form a major calyx, and these form the renal pelvis, which connects to the ureter. Nephrons – functional unit of the kidney, network of tubules where urine is filtered Blood supply: 20-25% of cardiac output goes to kidneys. Approx 1.2 L of blood a minute flows through! The nephron: functional unit of the kidney. Consists of a renal tubule and renal corpuscle. - renal tubule: long tubular passage way - renal corpuscle: starts tubule, consists of Bowman’s capsule (cup shaped chamber) and glomerulus, capillary network. Blood arrives at glomerulus from capillaries, projects into Bowman’s capsule. Capillaries drain into efferent arteriole that forms capillaries around renal tubule. Filtration happens at renal corpuscle – pressure forces water and solutes out of capillaries and into capsular space that is continuous with lumen of renal tubule. Essentially filtrate
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is blood plasma without blood proteins and cells. Renal tubule:
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urinary - Urinary system Components kidneys two produce...

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