blood - Blood The fluid component of the cardiovascular...

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Blood The fluid component of the cardiovascular system, also, a connective tissue. CV system is the first to begin functioning in an embryo… the need for O2 delivery and waste removal starts immediately. Thus blood starts circulating immediately. Many functions: 1. Transport system. Dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes. 2. regulation of pH/ion composition of body fluids 3. restriction of fluid losses, through clotting 4. defense against pathogens, through immune cells 5. regulation of body temperature, through absorption or distribution of heat Blood composition: Ground substance is plasma. Makes up 46-63% of total volume of blood. Mostly water (about 92%). Proteins are in solution, rather than being protein fibers. Protein in blood is for transport of non-water soluble substances; antibodies; hormones; other various proteins (clotting, etc) Formed elements: blood cells and fragments. - RBC, or erythrocytes. The most abundant cells in the blood, specialized for oxygen transport - WBC, or leukocytes. Involved with immunity and host defense. - Platelets, involved with clotting processes. Hematopoiesis: the process by which all blood cells are formed. Pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow divide and make either myeloid or lymphoid progenitors. From these both lineages form – lymphoid become B and T (specific immunity), myeloid become everything else (macrophages, neutrophils, RBC, etc) Together, plasma and formed elements = whole blood, which can be separated to regain any of the different elements. Basic physical characteristics – temperature is 38 deg C, or 100.4 F, slightly above body temp; very viscous, and cohesive, having to do with interactions between the formed elements and proteins; slightly alkaline, with pH of 7.35-7.45. Normal adult male has 5-6 liters of blood, female 4-5 liters. Either way is normally about 7% of total body weight. Production of blood cells, aka hematopoiesis: Begins in the bone marrow, with HSC. These cells have the ability to either reproduce themselves and remain pluripotent, or to differentiate into lymphoid progenitors, or myeloid progenitors.
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