The fluid component of the cardiovascular system, also, a connective tissue.
CV system is the first to begin functioning in an embryo… the need for O2 delivery and
waste removal starts immediately.
Thus blood starts circulating immediately.
Dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes.
regulation of pH/ion composition of body fluids
restriction of fluid losses, through clotting
defense against pathogens, through immune cells
regulation of body temperature, through absorption or distribution of heat
Ground substance is plasma.
Makes up 46-63% of total volume of blood.
Proteins are in solution, rather than being protein fibers.
Protein in blood is for transport
of non-water soluble substances; antibodies; hormones; other various proteins (clotting,
blood cells and fragments.
RBC, or erythrocytes.
The most abundant cells in the blood, specialized for
WBC, or leukocytes.
Involved with immunity and host defense.
Platelets, involved with clotting processes.
the process by which all blood cells are formed.
Pluripotent stem cells
in the bone marrow divide and make either myeloid or lymphoid progenitors.
both lineages form – lymphoid become B and T (specific immunity), myeloid become
everything else (macrophages, neutrophils, RBC, etc)
Together, plasma and formed elements = whole blood, which can be separated to regain
any of the different elements.
Basic physical characteristics – temperature is 38 deg C, or 100.4 F, slightly above body
temp; very viscous, and cohesive, having to do with interactions between the formed
elements and proteins; slightly alkaline, with pH of 7.35-7.45.
Normal adult male has 5-6 liters of blood, female 4-5 liters.
Either way is normally about
7% of total body weight.
Production of blood cells, aka hematopoiesis:
Begins in the bone marrow, with HSC.
These cells have the ability to either reproduce
themselves and remain pluripotent, or to differentiate into lymphoid progenitors, or