Powell Study Sheet for REL 102 Exam 1Chapter 1:Antiochus IV EpiphanesApocalyptic thought: religious perspective with pessimistic forecast for the world, combined withoptimistic outlook for favored remnant, who will be rescued out of the evil world through imminent act ofdivine intervention.Apocalypticism: distinction between good and evil with a deterministic view of history (idea thateverything is proceeding according to a divine plan).Apocrypha: 15 additional books written in Greek in the years after the writing of the Hebrew Scriptures(“Old Testament”) present in the Septuagint. Aramaic: Semitic language similar to Hebrew; native tongue for Jesus and many other Jews living inPalestine during the New Testament period.BCE/CEoBCE: “before the common era”oCE:“common era”Clients:benefits, expected to offer patron what they could: gratitude and loyalty.Cynicism: emphasize radical authenticity, repudiation of shame, simplicity of lifestyle, and a desire topossess only what is obtained naturally and freely. oTraces its origins to Diogenes of Sinope (ca.410-324 BCE).oLifestyle > dogma; focus: radical authenticity and independence.oAuthenticity through repudiation of shame: no embarrassment over bodily features or functions; noconcerns for reputation or status.oIndependence through renunciation of what can’t be obtained freely, embracing simplicity andvoluntary poverty and desiring to have only what is natural and necessary.oEmployed diatribe for pedagogical instruction—style of teaching or argument, rhetorical questionsfor conversation with imaginary partner. Diaspora: “dispersion” refers to Jews living outside of Palestine. Docetism: belief that Jesus was not actually a human but only appeared to be one. Dualism: Tendency to separate phenomena into sharply opposed categories, with little room for anythingin between. Epicureanism: philosophical system oTraces its origins to Epicurus (341-270 BCE)oAllows free will, questioning role of fate (or gods) to determine human lives.oPleasure=life goal, true pleasure is found through attainment of tranquility (freedom from anxiety),not through simple gratification of desires.oThose seeking true pleasure exercise free will to enjoy good things in moderation and to makeresponsible choices of that improve their lives and the lives of others.oAvoid things that lead to disappointment, pain, or grief (romantic love, emotional attachment,political commitments, devotion to material things). oNo sense of afterlife: meaning life has is to be found here and now.oSeen as idea of freedom from responsibility (rather than anxiety); regarded as “pleasure seekers”and viewed as license for self-indulgence.