GEOG3050 - Development and the City Notes - GEOG*3050...

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GEOG*3050 – Development and the City Notes
January 24, 2013 Infrastructure – Public, private or community based provision models, financing, health and environmental implications, technological change An estimated 1.1 billion people in urban areas had gained access to improved drinking water source over the period of 1990-2008, urbanites are much more likely to have access to cleaner water, much of the credit can be given to improved political stability Water and sanitation in the Middle East and North Africa by Zawahri et al 2011 – Water source is considered improved when there is a plumbing system in place (access, water quality, affordability, environmental sustainability) are the other factors regarding improvements in water quality, data collection included surveying door to door, questionnaires and testing, the different methods allowed them to determine water improvement Sanitation programs in 4 Global South cities by Joshi et al 2011 – Dignity is very important as a basic sanitation need Sanitation programs in India, Chaplin 2011 – The colonial history of India played a large influence on the creation of a lot of cities, poorly financed municipalities are unable to manage growth, and a middle class who monopolizes state funding for sanitation Free water to South African municipalities Muller 2008 – In 1996, a constitutional right to sufficient water was established, policy decision to provide all South Africans with free basic water. Seen as disregarding of water as an economic good Issues for water and sanitation – Waterborne diseases (3.5 million deaths per year and 60% of infant mortality, cultural issues, gender (women and girls collecting water), water pollution from agriculture and runoff Energy – 1.5 billion lack electricity, 3 billion use solid fuels for cooking, 2 million per year die from indoor air pollution from using fuels, urbanites are more likely to have access to modern fuels Case studies – Solar water heaters for household use and peri-urban Egypt Issues – Health, environmental sustainability Transportation – Increase in urban populations, increase in size of urban areas, increase in number of vehicle owners, insufficient and poorly planned road and transit infrastructure, insufficient cycling and pedestrian spaces Public transit – Can be private or public, can include subways, trains buses and shared vans as well as taxi services Case studies on transportation Pucher et al 2005 – Urban transportation in India, modal split between cities is very different (higher
reliance on different types of transportation), study noted massive increases in bus usage resulting in traffic related injuries, deaths, pollution Bogota’s TransMilenio bus rapid transit system – Running above ground with dedicated lanes, bus system that acts like an above ground subway system, there are also women only busses in the city to act against sexual assaults that had taken place, there are more than a million riders per day and it costs less than a dollar to use

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