100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 5 out of 45 pages.
GEOG*3490 – Environment and Tourism Notes
Definitions: Agenda 21 - if sustainable development is the plan, Agenda 21 is the manual (Look up further) Debt for Nature Swaps (Look up definition) oENGOs “Borrow” from World Bank/IMF: Debt for Nature Swaps1) Debt held by private lending institutions2) NGOs raise funds (from members, donors)3) Debt sold to NGO at discount price4) NGO then ‘owns’ debt5) NGO forgives debt in exchange for domestic $ support for conservation action (often park creation)Dependency Theory - development as a process critiquing previous theories, extract resources from developing countries (look up further) Fetishism oConcept of commodity fetishism from Marx oIdea that the social relations of production are hidden from consumer- examples: your coffee, your computer oIgnorant of the social production of our products- how much do workers get paid, what are the working conditions like?Geographical ImaginationoProcess through which we understand the world and represent it to ourselves and others (travel brochures, news reports, travel programs, internet ext.oWestern imaginings are often incomplete or very different from local imaginings oE.g. Tour operators control the marketing of the productGlobalization oincreasingly rapid movement (people, money, ideas) through time and spaceoMerging cultures, values and currencyoGlobal communicationoFar travel in short timeLeakage oP. 186 in textPost-Fordismoflexible production and niche marketsoconsumption dominant, credit cards, more products but they are replaced more quicklyoTransition from Fordism to this ^Subservience ounequal power relations between hosts (Local) and guests (tourists)oLocal population expected to fill subservient service roles and meet guests needs
oCompare with host-guest relationship in developed country destination- how similar or different? In developed countries- all people have the same access to same health care, education ect. But overall it is a service sector.Zooification osense local people are treated as tourist attractions and not as people (really obvious for native peoples)Lecture 1: Intro
Lecture 2: Jan. 8thChapter 1- Tourism is regulated by national governments- Tourism requires three things:1. Desire or reason to travel2. Places to go and way to get to them3. Time and money for leisure travel 4 Stages of Tourism Development:1. Early Days (up to 1800s)- Ex. Ancient Romans- travelled to the coast in the summer to escape city heat. They were able to due to excellent transportation facilities.- ex. Pilgrimages (Holiday- holy day)- ex. “Grand Tour”- Aristocratic (European) men completing their education through travel2. Transportation Era (1830-1914)- Railways and steamships transformed travel- Growth in population and wealth creates market for travel- beginnings of mass travel and packaged tour operators- Americans go to Europe for Grand Tour3. Inter-war period (1918-1939)- WW1- travel stopped besides travel associated with the war- Aviation, cars