GEOG3490 Environment and Tourism Notes - GEOG*3490...

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GEOG*3490 – Environment and Tourism Notes
Definitions: Agenda 21 - if sustainable development is the plan, Agenda 21 is the manual (Look up further) Debt for Nature Swaps (Look up definition) o ENGOs “Borrow” from World Bank/IMF: Debt for Nature Swaps 1) Debt held by private lending institutions 2) NGOs raise funds (from members, donors) 3) Debt sold to NGO at discount price 4) NGO then ‘owns’ debt 5) NGO forgives debt in exchange for domestic $ support for conservation action (often park creation) Dependency Theory - development as a process critiquing previous theories, extract resources from developing countries (look up further) Fetishism o Concept of commodity fetishism from Marx o Idea that the social relations of production are hidden from consumer- examples: your coffee, your computer o Ignorant of the social production of our products- how much do workers get paid, what are the working conditions like? Geographical Imagination o Process through which we understand the world and represent it to ourselves and others (travel brochures, news reports, travel programs, internet ext. o Western imaginings are often incomplete or very different from local imaginings o E.g. Tour operators control the marketing of the product Globalization o increasingly rapid movement (people, money, ideas) through time and space o Merging cultures, values and currency o Global communication o Far travel in short time Leakage o P. 186 in text Post-Fordism o flexible production and niche markets o consumption dominant, credit cards, more products but they are replaced more quickly o Transition from Fordism to this ^ Subservience o unequal power relations between hosts (Local) and guests (tourists) o Local population expected to fill subservient service roles and meet guests needs
o Compare with host-guest relationship in developed country destination- how similar or different? In developed countries- all people have the same access to same health care, education ect. But overall it is a service sector. Zooification o sense local people are treated as tourist attractions and not as people (really obvious for native peoples) Lecture 1: Intro
Lecture 2: Jan. 8 th Chapter 1 - Tourism is regulated by national governments - Tourism requires three things: 1. Desire or reason to travel 2. Places to go and way to get to them 3. Time and money for leisure travel 4 Stages of Tourism Development: 1. Early Days (up to 1800s) - Ex. Ancient Romans- travelled to the coast in the summer to escape city heat. They were able to due to excellent transportation facilities. - ex. Pilgrimages (Holiday- holy day) - ex. “Grand Tour”- Aristocratic (European) men completing their education through travel 2. Transportation Era (1830-1914) - Railways and steamships transformed travel - Growth in population and wealth creates market for travel - beginnings of mass travel and packaged tour operators - Americans go to Europe for Grand Tour 3. Inter-war period (1918-1939) - WW1- travel stopped besides travel associated with the war - Aviation, cars

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