PHILOSOPHY FINAL EXAM REVIEWWEEK ONE Nietszche: Nietzsche has one view of human nature. (ONTOLOGY). Being educated (shaped, cultured, wiser, smarter, informed) is presumably GOOD or BETTER than not being wise or informed… VALUE If you take young people to be basically blank unruly things with a tender bud inside that needs to be gently and quietly “perfected”, then education will consist in the effort to liberate: “your educators can only be your liberators”. But if people don’t actually even have such an ‘inner nature’ then education is not going to ‘free’ that little tender bud but it is going to be a kind of trap: you will spend your days in the company of people mothering you, among 100’s of others being treated in exactly the same way as though you are cookie cutters, being given things to read you don’t want, making you type your essays cause they can’t read your handwriting, trying to get you to stop doing the things you do as the person you are (i.e. jiggling your legs, eating), countering the force of your own nature… in accordance with some external value or nature that is not your own. “A painful and dangerous mission”. ROUSSEAU: -Claims we are taught by 3 masters: Nature, Men, and Things-Insists that we must let nature be our guide because it is the only one wholly out of our control WEEK 2: HUME – Enquiry of Human Understanding As he is going on about how one idea always leads to another, or some ideas are always found in a certain arrangement, or that there are logical threads to any seemingly incoherence conversation or dream….this is to make the point that the content of our thoughts and imagination (WHICH is based on experience) is PATTERNED. He can’t say that this PROVES nature itself (the world) IS patterned, but he thinks we can make a strong inference that it is. THIS doesn’t prove that one effect is linked to one cause IN NATURE, but it does add to his account of how there is <constant conjunction> (in mental habits, and in sequences of experiences) But, he also insists that when we are forming an ontological picture of what “reality is” we CAN’T totally disregard certain experiences which seemspontaneous, or unpredictable, random. It is true that even with the best guesses and the best information, sometimes we see something strange that we hadn’t foreseen: some
weather pattern, some exhibition of personality, some illness that doesn’t seem to follow the normal patterns ofdisease. THIS doesn’t prove that an event (like getting cancer) is UNCAUSED, i.e. just comes out of nowhere, or is an effect without a cause (i.e. a miracle). Hume goes on to say that EVERYTHING is always found connected with something else. It is just that what that <something else> is, is sometimes unknown to us.